Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP) is a rapidly progressive non infectious interstitial lung disease of unknown aetiology. It is considered the only acute process of the idiopathic intersitial pneumonias.
AIP tends to occur in those without pre-existing lung disease and typically affects middle age adults (mean ~ 50 years 5).
Clinical features are varied. Patients often have a history of an antecedent prior illness such as a viral upper respiratory infection. Common initial symptoms include myalgias, arthralgias, pyrexia, chills, and malaise. Severe exertional dyspnoea develops over a matter of days to weeks 13.
AIP is characterised histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) 2. The alveolar damage comprises of three phases:
- acute exudative phase
- subsequent organising phase
- final fibrotic phase
Histological features are very similar with that of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
The correct clinical context is vital for image interpretation.
Non specific and often shows bilateral patchy airspace opacification.
During the initial stages AIP can have similar features to adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
- areas with ground-glass attenuation: generally tends to be bilateral and symmetrical 10
- traction bronchiectasis: can be seen in ~80% of cases during the course of the disease 4 and correlates with disease duration 2
- lung parechymal architectural distortion
- air space consolidation: may have a slight predilection towards the dependent portions 5
Treatment and prognosis
The condition usually progresses to respiratory failure that requires mechanical ventilation and corticosteroid therapy. Even despite mechanical ventilation, it often tends to carry a grave prognosis with > 70% mortality at ~ 3 months 1,
History and etymology
- clinical features first described by L Hamman and A Rich in 1935 8
- pathological processes first described by A L Katzenstein et al in 1986 3
Considerations in early stages include
- adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): can have other organ involvement 9
- infectious multifocal pneumonia
For a more general differential, consider
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- 8 Hamman, L, Rich, A Fulminating diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lungs. Trans Am Clin Clinatol Assoc 1935;51,154-163
- 9. Quefatieh A, Stone CH, Digiovine B et-al. Low hospital mortality in patients with acute interstitial pneumonia. Chest. 2003;124 (2): 554-9. doi:10.1378/chest.124.2.554 - Pubmed citation
- 10.Primack SL, Hartman TE, Ikezoe J et-al. Acute interstitial pneumonia: radiographic and CT findings in nine patients. Radiology. 1993;188 (3): 817-20. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
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- 13. Bonaccorsi A, Cancellieri A, Chilosi M et-al. Acute interstitial pneumonia: report of a series. Eur. Respir. J. 2003;21 (1): 187-91. doi:10.1183/09031936.03.00297002 - Pubmed citation
- 14. Avnon LS, Pikovsky O, Sion-Vardy N et-al. Acute interstitial pneumonia-Hamman-Rich syndrome: clinical characteristics and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Anesth. Analg. 2009;108 (1): 232-7. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e318188af7a - Pubmed citation
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
|Synonyms or Alternative Spelling||Include in Listings?|
|Acute interstitial pneumonia||✓|
|Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP)||✗|