Anophthalmia refers to a complete absence of ocular development. It is often considered to represent the most severe form of microphthalmia.
It can occur in 3 different situations:
- primary anophthalmia: complete absence of eye tissue due to a failure of the part of the brain that forms the eye
- secondary anophthalmia: there is initial eye development which halts for some reason leaving behind only residual eye tissue or extremely small eyes which can only be seen under close examination
- degenerative anophthalmia: there is initial ocular development but again for some reason starts to degenerate - possibly from lack of blood supply to the eye
Recognised associations are many and include:
History and etymology
It derives from the Greek word: ανόφθαλμος meaning "without eye"
- 1. Sener RN. Cranial MR imaging findings in Waardenburg syndrome: anophthalmia, and hypothalamic hamartoma. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 22 (5): 409-11. Comput Med Imaging Graph (link) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Daxecker F, Felber S. Magnetic resonance imaging features of congenital anophthalmia. Ophthalmologica. 1993;206 (3): 139-42. - Pubmed citation
- 3. Albernaz VS, Castillo M, Hudgins PA et-al. Imaging findings in patients with clinical anophthalmos. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18 (3): 555-61. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Aktekin M, Oz O, Saygili MR et-al. Bilateral congenital anophthalmos and agenesis of the optic pathways. Yonsei Med. J. 2005;46 (2): 296-9. Yonsei Med. J. (link) - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 5. Nyberg DA, McGahan JP, Pretorius DH. Diagnostic imaging of fetal anomalies. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2003) ISBN:0781732115. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
|Synonyms or Alternative Spelling||Include in Listings?|
|Congenital anophthalmia (CA)||✗|