Most patients are asymptomatic 4
Chronic inflammation can lead to ductal obstruction from pus or thick mucus which in turn can result in retained secretions within the Bartholin glands.
They are typically seen as rounded unilocular cysts lying at the posterior aspect of the vagina. Their location is at or below the level of the pubic symphysis (best appreciated on coronal imaging).
May only be demonstrated on trans-perineal ultrasound as the cyst is close to the labia.
Signal characteristics include:
- T1 - can be of variable signal
- T2 - often of uniform hyper-intensity on T2-weighted imaging although can occasionally vary dependent on protein content, may also be heterogeneous when infected
- infection: may turn into Bartholin gland abscesses
- rare instances of development of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma within cyst 5
Treatment and prognosis
Infected or symptomatic cysts may require marsupialization.
General imaging differential considerations include:
- Bartholin gland abscess - may show associated inflammatory features
- Bartholin gland tumour - consider if discovered in the post-menopausal patient
- Gartner duct cyst - their location at or below the level of the pubic symphysis helps to differentiate them from Gartner duct cysts.
- Nabothian cyst - located at a much higher position with the uterine cervix
- Skene duct cyst - centered more anteriorly and closer to the external urethral meatus - sagittal imaging may help differentiate in some cases
- urethral diverticulum
- 1- Grant LA, Sala E, Griffin N. Congenital and acquired conditions of the vulva and vagina on magnetic resonance imaging: a pictorial review. Semin. Ultrasound CT MR. 2010;31 (5): 347-62. doi:10.1053/j.sult.2010.07.001 - Pubmed citation
- 2- Siegelman ES, Outwater EK, Banner MP et-al. High-resolution MR imaging of the vagina. Radiographics. 17 (5): 1183-203. Radiographics (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 3-. Hahn WY, Israel GM, Lee VS. MRI of female urethral and periurethral disorders. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182 (3): 677-82. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 4- Prasad SR, Menias CO, Narra VR et-al. Cross-sectional imaging of the female urethra: technique and results. Radiographics. 25 (3): 749-61. doi:10.1148/rg.253045067 - Pubmed citation
- 5- Ros PR, Mortele KJ. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvis, a teaching file. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2006) ISBN:0781772370. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
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