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Bronchial artery

The bronchial arteries are responsible for the majority of the oxygen supply to the lung parenchyma. The classic pattern described below of two bronchial arteries on the left and one on the right is found in 60% of patients 1

Gross anatomy

The bronchial arteries typically arise from the thoracic aorta at the T3-T8 levels with 80% arising from the T5-T6 level.

Left bronchial arteries

There are usually two bronchial arteries on the left that arise directly from the anterior surface of the thoracic aorta:

  • superior left bronchial artery: arises from the anteromedial surface of the aortic arch, lateral to the carina and posterior to the left main bronchus
  • inferior left bronchial artery: also arises from the aorta and is parallel to the superior artery, but inferior to the left main bronchus
Right bronchial artery

The right bronchial artery has a common origin with an intercostal artery and this is called the intercostobronchial trunk (ICBT) and arises from the right posterolateral aspect of the thoracic aorta. 

Supply

Variant anatomy

Origin

Anomalous origin is present in ~20% (range 8.3-35%) of patients and the bronchial arteries may arises from a wide range of arteries including 1: 

Branching patterns
  • common brachial artery trunk (i.e. for both left and right bronchial arteries)
  • single bronchial artery bilaterally (i.e. one left and one right)
  • single bronchial artery on the left and two bronchial arteries on the right (one ICTB)
  • left bronchial artery less commonly has its origin from an ICTB

Related pathology


Related articles

Thoracic anatomy

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