Bronchopneumonia (also sometimes known as lobular pneumonia 1) is a radiological pattern associated with suppurative peribronchiolar inflammation and subsequent patchy consolidation of one or more secondary lobules of a lung in response to a bacterial pneumonia.
The radiological appearance of bronchopneumonia is not specific to any single causative organism, although there are organisms which classically have a radiological presentation of bronchopneumonia and hence the identification of bronchopneumonia can provide information regarding the likely aetiological pathogens 7. The most common causative organisms of bronchopneumonia are Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and anaerobes 3.
Pneumonia is the most common cause of death due to infectious diseases in the United States, with an incidence 11.6/1000 persons/year reported in one study 4. Incidence is higher at the extremes of age. Bronchopneumonia is a common hospital acquired infection 3.
The presentation of bronchopneumonia depends on the severity of the disease, host factors and the presence of complications.Bronchopneumonia may present with a productive cough, dyspnoea, pyrexia/fevers, rigors, malaise, pleuritic pain and occasionally haemoptysis 5.
Bronchopneumonia is precipitated by inhalation (or rarely haematogenous spread) of a causative organism. This results in peribronchiolar inflammation, which can spread through the pores of Kohn to create consolidation throughout an entire secondary pulmonary lobule 2.
Causative organisms of a bronchopneumonia pattern include 3:
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Klebsiella pneumoniae
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Escherichia coli
- Anaerobes, such as Proteus species
Histologically, multiple small foci of inflammation can be demonstrated. Extensive congestion and dilation of bloods vessels and areas of poorly circumscribed consolidation can be seen in affected areas 8. These areas of inflammation are seperated by areas of normal lung parenchyma 3.
Bronchopneumonia is characterised by multiple small nodular or reticunodular opacities which tend to be patchy and confluent. This represents areas of lung where there are patches of inflammation seperated by normal lung parenchyma 2.
The distribution is often bilateral and assymetric, and predominantly involves the lung bases 8.
CT - HRCT chest
Multiple foci of opacity can be seen in a lobular pattern, centred at centrilobular bronchioles. These foci of consolidation can overlap to create a larger hetrogenous confluent area of consolidation 6. This may result in a tree-in-bud appearance.
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- 2. Lange S, Walsh G. Radiology of Chest Diseases. TIS. ISBN:B005UG7V10. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
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- 4. Marston BJ, Plouffe JF, File TM et-al. Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Results of a population-based active surveillance Study in Ohio. The Community-Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group. Arch. Intern. Med. 1997;157 (15): 1709-18. Pubmed citation
- 5.Talley N, O'Connor S. Clinical Examination E-Book. Harcourt Publishers Group (Australia) Pty.Ltd. ISBN:0729579050. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 6. Elicker BM, Webb WR. Fundamentals of High-Resolution Lung Ct. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2013) ISBN:1451184085. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 7. Gharib AM, Stern EJ. Radiology of pneumonia. Med. Clin. North Am. 2001;85 (6): 1461-91, x. Pubmed citation
- 8. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N et-al. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (Robbins Pathology). Saunders. ISBN:B005WV2Q86. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
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