Bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy

Dr Craig Hacking and Dr Jeremy Jones et al.

Bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy describes the division of the lungs into segments based on the tertiary or segmental bronchi.

Gross anatomy

The trachea divides at the carina forming the left and right main stem bronchi which enter the lung substance to divide further. This initial division is into secondary or lobar bronchi, but subsequent divisions give rise to smaller and smaller bronchi and bronchioles until the smallest bronchioles connect to the innumerable alveoli.

Each segment has its own pulmonary arterial branch and thus, the bronchopulmonary segment is a portion of lung supplied by its own bronchus and artery. Each segment is functionally and anatomically discrete allowing a single segment to be surgically resected without affecting its neighbouring segments.

There is some form of segmental symmetry between the right and left lungs, even though the left lung is smaller and only contains two lobes. In general each lung has 10 segments: the upper lobes contains 3 segments, the middle lobe / lingula 2 and the lower lobes 5. Bilaterally, the upper lobes have apical, posterior and anterior segments and the lower lobes superior (apical) and 4 basal segments (anterior, medial, posterior and lateral). With this basic symmetric anatomy shared between the lungs, there are a few differences that can be described:

Right lung

The right lung is subdivided into three lobes with ten segments. The notation in brackets refers to the Boyden classification of bronchi.

Left lung

The left lung is subdivided into two lobes and thereby, into eight segments. The notation in brackets refers to the Boyden classification of bronchi.

Useful mnemonic to remember the bronchopulmonary segments are:

  • A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung)
  • ASIA ALPS (left lung)

Variant anatomy


Thoracic anatomy
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Article Information:

rID: 13644
System: Chest
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Bronchopulmonary segments
  • Segmental lung anatomy
  • Bronchopulmonary segment
  • Lung segments
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    Figure 1: bronchial segmentation
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    Figure 2: bronchial anatomy
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