Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a haematological malignancy.
CLL is considered the most common type of leukemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North America ranges from 29 - 38% of all leukaemias 1. It primarily affects adults ~ 65 - 70 years of age 3.
Up to half of patients can be asymptomatic where the disease incidentally discovered by a routine blood work up 3. Patients may some types present with hepatomegaly, splenomegaly or both and / or a haemolytic anaemia.
It is a B-lineage neoplasm of pre-follicular center cells that is usually associated with circulating neoplastic small lymphocytes. From a morphologic and immunophenotypic perspective, the malignant cells of CLL tend to be identical to those of nodal-based small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), and these two malignancies are thought to represent different manifestations of the same disease 1.
There are two common staging system in use which are
The diagnosis is generally established by a bone marrow biopsy and immunophenotyping.
As other type of bone marrow infiltrative disease, it is possible to see a diffusely hypointense signa of bone structuresl on T1, easier to see on spinal MRI.
- Richter transformation: is defined as a diffuse large cell lymphoma, occurring by transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia 2,4.
- 1. Vibhute P, Carneiro E, Genden E et-al. Palatal enlargement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27 (8): 1649-50. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Ghofrani M, Tantiwongkosi B, Smith AS et-al. Richter transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia presenting as a dural-based non-hodgkin lymphoma mass. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28 (2): 318-20. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Al-Tubaikh JA. Internal Medicine, An Illustrated Radiological Guide. Springer Verlag. (2010) ISBN:3642037089. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Tardif S, De kerviler E, Chaibi P et-al. CT and MR patterns of spinal involvement in Richter syndrome. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 19 (1): 146-9. - Pubmed citation
- 5. Moore W, Baram D, Hu Y. Pulmonary infiltration from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Thorac Imaging. 2006;21 (2): 172-5. J Thorac Imaging (link) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Guermazi A, Abdelwahab IF. Radiological Imaging in Hematological Malignancies. Springer Verlag. (2004) ISBN:3540439994. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
|Synonyms or Alternative Spelling||Include in Listings?|
|B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia||✗|
|Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)||✗|
|Chronic lymphocytic leukemia||✗|
|B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia||✗|
|B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia||✗|