Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a haematological malignancy.
CLL is considered the most common type of leukemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North America ranges from 29-38% of all leukaemias 1. It primarily affects adults ~65-70 years of age 3.
Up to half of patients can be asymptomatic where the disease incidentally discovered by a routine blood work up 3. Patients may some types present with hepatomegaly, splenomegaly or both and/or a haemolytic anaemia.
It is a B-lineage neoplasm of pre-follicular center cells that is usually associated with circulating neoplastic small lymphocytes. From a morphologic and immunophenotypic perspective, the malignant cells of CLL tend to be identical to those of nodal-based small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), and these two malignancies are thought to represent different manifestations of the same disease 1.
There are two common staging system in use which are:
The diagnosis is generally established by a bone marrow biopsy and immunophenotyping.
As other type of bone marrow infiltrative disease, it is possible to see a diffusely hypointense signa of bone structuresl on T1, easier to see on spinal MRI.
- Richter transformation: is defined as a diffuse large cell lymphoma, occurring by transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia 2,4.
- 1. Vibhute P, Carneiro E, Genden E et-al. Palatal enlargement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27 (8): 1649-50. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Ghofrani M, Tantiwongkosi B, Smith AS et-al. Richter transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia presenting as a dural-based non-hodgkin lymphoma mass. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28 (2): 318-20. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Al-Tubaikh JA. Internal Medicine, An Illustrated Radiological Guide. Springer Verlag. (2010) ISBN:3642037089. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Tardif S, De kerviler E, Chaibi P et-al. CT and MR patterns of spinal involvement in Richter syndrome. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 19 (1): 146-9. - Pubmed citation
- 5. Moore W, Baram D, Hu Y. Pulmonary infiltration from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Thorac Imaging. 2006;21 (2): 172-5. J Thorac Imaging (link) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Guermazi A, Abdelwahab IF. Radiological Imaging in Hematological Malignancies. Springer Verlag. (2004) ISBN:3540439994. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
|Synonyms or Alternative Spelling||Include in Listings?|
|B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia||✗|
|Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)||✗|
|Chronic lymphocytic leukemia||✗|
|B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia||✗|
|B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia||✗|