Coxa vara describes a deformity of the hip where the angle formed between the head and neck of the femur and its shaft (Mikulicz angle) is decreased, usually defined as less than 120 degrees.
It can be congenital or acquired. The common mechansim in congenital cases is a failure of medial growth of the physeal plate 3.
One of the very early classifications proposed by Fairbank in 1928, is often considered most useful from a radiologic point of view. A slight modifcation of this system includes:
- idiopathic :
- congenital : mild or severe coxa vara, with associated congenital anomalies : see associations
- developmental : progressive, usually appearing between the ages of two and six years, with characteristic roentgenologic features.
- rachitic : usually associated with active rickets.
- adolescent : secondary to slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
- traumatic : usually following fracture of the femoral neck (rare in children).
- inflammatory : secondary to tuberculosis or other infection.
- secondary to other underlying bone diseases such as :
- capital coxa vara : occasionally seen in severe osteoarthritis and Legg-Perthes' disease
- congenital dislocation of hip - developmental hip dysplasia
- faulty development of the femur
- camptodactyly arthropathy coxa vara pericarditis (CACP) syndrome 2
- 1. Finby N, Jacobson HG, Poppel MH. Idiopathic coxa vara in childhood. Radiology. 1956;67 (1): 10-6. doi:10.1148/67.1.10 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Offiah AC, Woo P, Prieur AM et-al. Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome versus juvenile idiopathic arthropathy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185 (2): 522-9. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Yochum TR, Rowe LJ. Essentials of Skeletal Radiology. Philadelphia, Pa. : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, c2005. (2004) ISBN:0781739462. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
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