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Desmoid tumour

Desmoid tumours (DTs) are benign, non-inflammatory fibroblastic tumours (see WHO 2002 classification of soft tissue tumours) with a tendency to local invasion and recurrence but without metastasis.

Epidemiology

They are rare tumours, thought to account for only ~0.03% of all neoplasms 6. Desmoid tumours are found in all age groups but are most frequently encountered between 20 and 40 years of age. They are seen more in women (2:1). They are rare lesions with an estimated incidence of 3 or 4 new cases per million population per year.

Clinical presentation

Desmoid tumours present as masses, and as such presentation depends on location.

Pathology

Their exact aetiology remains uncertain, although they are frequently associated with previous trauma or surgical incision. On the molecular level, desmoids are characterised by mutations in the β-catenin gene, CTNNB1, or the adenomatous polyposis coli gene, APC 7.

Associations
Location

Frequent locations in the abdomen are the abdominal wall, the root of the mesentery and the retroperitoneum.

Radiographic features

Ultrasound

Desmoid tumours typically appear as homogeneously anechoic or hypoechoic masses. As such they should not be confused with cystic lesions.

CT
  • most desmoid tumors are well circumscribed masses, although in some cases they may appear more aggressive with ill-defined margins
  • most are relatively homogeneously or focally hyperattenuating when compared to soft tissue on the non-contrast scan.
  • most will demonstrate enhancement following administration of intravenous contrast.
MRI

MRI, as is the case with other soft tissue tumours, is more sensitive to local tumour extension. Their appearance is accounted for by their dense cellularity. Typical signal characteristics include:

  • T1: low signal intensity
  • T2: low signal intensity
  • T1 C+ (Gd): may show homogeneous, inhomogeneous, or no significant enhancement 8

Treatment and prognosis

Watchful waiting is now considered a reasonable option in selected asymptomatic patients 7. Other management options include:

  • surgical resection (traditionally used, although recurrence rate is high)
    • NSAIDs and anti-oestrogens can be used to reduce the rate of recurrence
  • radiotherapy

History and etymology

The term ‘desmoid’ originates from the Greek word ‘desmos - Δεσμός’, meaning band or tendon-like.

See also

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