A protrusion is distinguished from a disc bulge in that it involves less than 25% of the circumference of the disc. Conversely it is distinguished from a disc extrusion in that its base is wider than its 'dome' and it does not extend above or below the disc level.
It may also be described in terms of its axial position, into central, subarticular, foraminal, extraforaminal or anterior locations.
Additionally the terms contained (outer annulus fibrosus laminae are intact) and non-contained (all laminae are deficient) are also sometimes used.
- 1. Costello RF, Beall DP. Nomenclature and standard reporting terminology of intervertebral disk herniation. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2007;15 (2): 167-74, v-vi. doi:10.1016/j.mric.2006.12.001 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Parnell AP. Cervical intradural disc protrusion. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 1989;51 (7): 1007. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Fardon DF, Milette PC. Nomenclature and classification of lumbar disc pathology. Recommendations of the Combined task Forces of the North American Spine Society, American Society of Spine Radiology, and American Society of Neuroradiology. Spine. 2001;26 (5): E93-E113. Pubmed citation
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
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