Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include
- an irregular bulge in capsule
- obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle
- asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle
- angulation / step off appearnace of the prostate tumour
- focal capsular retraction and or thickening
- broad capsular tumour contact (> 12 mm)
- breech of the capsule with evidence of direct tumour extension
These criteria can be used both in high resolution transrectal ultrasound / MRI.
MRI is much more superior than transrectal ultrasound, CT and digital rectal examination in detecting extracapsular spread as well as seminal vesicular invasion in prostate cancer.
Criteria for seminal vesicular extension include
- direct tumour extension into and around the seminal vesicles
- tumour extension along the ejaculatory ducts, resulting in seminal vesicles of low signal intensity in T2WI and non visualisation of the ejaculatory duct.
- 1. Yu KK, Hricak H, Alagappan R et-al. Detection of extracapsular extension of prostate carcinoma with endorectal and phased-array coil MR imaging: multivariate feature analysis. Radiology. 1997;202 (3): 697-702. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Mullerad M, Hricak H, Wang L et-al. Prostate cancer: detection of extracapsular extension by genitourinary and general body radiologists at MR imaging. Radiology. 2004;232 (1): 140-6. doi:10.1148/radiol.2321031254 - Pubmed citation
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
|Synonyms or Alternative Spelling||Include in Listings?|
|Ca Prostate - extracapsular extension MRI||✗|
|Ca Prostate - extracapsular extension||✗|