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Follicular thyroid cancer

Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most frequent malignancy of the thyroid gland after papillary cancer and accounts for ≈10-20% of all thyroid neoplasms

Epidemiology

It typically occurs in women and in an older age group than papillary (i.e. 40-60 years of age).

Pathlogy

Unlike papillary it metastasises late to lymph nodes, with only 5-10% of patients having nodal metastases at the time of diagnosis. Haematogenous spread is however much more common with 20% or so of patients having distant haematogenous metastases at presentation.

Genetics 
  • the Ras oncogene is positive in a significant proportion of individuals
Sub types

Radiographic features

Ultrasound
  • lesions are typicaly hypoechoic 
  • usually lacks cystic change
Nuclear Imaging

Follicular thyroid cancer typically concentrates pertechnetate, but not radioiodine.

Treatment and prognosis

Treatment tends to revolve around local surgical treatment and radioactive iodine.

Prognosis is not as favorable as papillary, but better than anaplastic, and depends on the presence and extent of distal metastatic disease. In local disease 90% 10 year survival can be expected, whereas with distant disease that figure drops to approximately 50%.

Differentiation of follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma of the thyroid cannot be made on cytology alone, and requires examination of the surgical specimen looking for extra capsular spread.

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