Hangman fracture (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis) is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction.
Post-traumatic neck pain after hyperextension high velocity injury is the most common presentation. Neurological impairment is seen only in 25% of patients.
This is known as a judicial lesion as these are the forces delivered by a noose, which, contrary to most ill-informed depictions, was placed with the knot towards the side of the neck, next to the angle of the mandible/mastoid process.
This fracture is virtually never seen in suicidial hanging. Indeed it was not even seen in many of those who were judicially hanged; asphyxiation being the usual mode of death. Major trauma in hyperextension, such as a high speed motor vehicle accident, is in fact the most common association – especially in fatal cases.
- bilateral lamina and pedicle fracture at C2
- usually associated with anterolisthesis of C2 on C3
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment can be bracing or, more typically, internal fixation.
History and etymology
The term "hangman fracture" was introduced by Schneider in 1965 5. Strictly speaking, the fracture is actually misnamed and should more correctly be called "hangee" fracture. As a historical note there are four methods of judicial hanging and the process is more complicated than may be evident at first glance.
- 1. Giauque AP, Bittle MM, Braman JP. Type I hangman's fracture. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2012;41 (4): 116-7. doi:10.1067/j.cpradiol.2011.07.013 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Mirvis SE, Young JW, Lim C et-al. Hangman's fracture: radiologic assessment in 27 cases. Radiology. 1987;163 (3): 713-7. Radiology (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Parisi M, Lieberson R, Shatsky S. Hangman's fracture or primary spondylolysis: a patient and a brief review. Pediatr Radiol. 1991;21 (5): 367-8. - Pubmed citation
- 4. Longstreth WT, Cohen W, Reay DT. Hangman's fracture. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;15 (5): 576. doi:10.3171/2011.3.SPINE11206 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Rayes M, Mittal M, Rengachary SS et-al. Hangman's fracture: a historical and biomechanical perspective. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14 (2): 198-208. doi:10.3171/2010.10.SPINE09805 - Pubmed citation
Synonyms & Alternative Spellings
|Synonyms or Alternative Spelling||Include in Listings?|
|Traumatic spondylolisthesis of C-2||✗|
|Traumatic spondylolisthesis of C2||✗|