Hemivertebra

Hemivertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly and results from a lack of formation of one half of a vertebral body. It can be a common cause of a congenital scoliosis

Epidemiology

The estimated incidence is at ~0.3 per 1000 live births 2.

Pathology

It falls under the spectrum of segmentational anomalies and can involve one or multiple levels.

A hemivertebra acts as a wedge within the vertebral column, resulting in curvature away from the side on which it is present. 

Associations

Recognised associations are many and include:

This list supposed to be lot longer than this. If you know more, do add in with a relevant journal reference.

Classification

A hemivertebra can be classified according to many types which include:

Attachment
  • fully segmental (free)
    • not attached to either vertebra above or below
    • most concerning
  • semi segmental: half segment is fused with vertebra above or below with no intervening intervertebral disc
  • non segemental
    • not separated from (i.e. connected to) either level above or below
    • causes less of a concern
  • incarcerated
    • joined by pedicles to levels above and below
    • causes less of a concern
Orientation 

Radiographic features

Antenatal ultrasound

A hemivertebra may be seen as an asymmetrical vertebral body on sagittal or coronal scanning, while on axial scanning, a focal defect may be seen on either side of the vertebral column 5.

Plain radiograph / CT

Usually directly outlines the bony anomaly and is often seen as a wedge shaped vertebral body.

Treatment and prognosis

The prognosis can be variable dependant on the type of segmentation anomaly, from being a progressive to a non progressive deformity. The strongest negative impact is when a hemivertebra occurs at the lumbo-sacral level 7.

Differential diagnosis


Spinal anatomy
Edit Article Share
URL of Article

Article Information:

rID: 13613
Section: Anatomy
Tags: spine, variant
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Hemivertebrae
  • Hemi-vertebra
  • Hemi-vertebrae
  • Drag
    Case 1
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 2
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 3: T3 right lateral hemivertebra
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 4
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.
    Loadinganimation

    Alert_accept

    Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

    Alert_accept Thank you for updating your details.