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HIV/AIDS: CNS manifestations

The CNS manifestations of HIV/AIDS (neuroAIDS) occur secondary to a wide range of neurodegenerative, infectious, inflammatory or neoplastic processes. 


Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, there has been a shift in the epidemiology of CNS manifestations of HIV in Western developed countries, with a decline in the incidence of opportunistic infections 2,3.


HIV/AIDS affects the CNS by one of four mechanisms:

  1. direct consequence of the HIV virus
  2. opportunistic infections
  3. neoplasms in the immunocompromised host
  4. treatment-related complications
Direct consequence HIV virus
Opportunistic infections
CNS tumours
Treatment-related complications

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