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Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus worm, and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body.

Notable sites include

There are two main strains which are

  • Echinococcus granulosus: commoner:
    • defnitive host: dog/occasionally another carvinore
    • intermediate host: sheep
  • Echinococcus alveolaris /multilocularis: less common but more invasive

Pathology

Cyst structure

The cysts usually have three components:

  • pericyst: composed of inflammatory tissue of host origin
  • exocyst:
  • endocyst: scolices (the larval stage of the parasite) and the laminated membrane are produced here
Cyst classification

Based on morphology the cyst can be classified into 4 different types 2:

  • type I: simple cyst with no internal architecture
  • type II: cyst with daughter cyst(s) + matrix:
    • type IIa: round daughter cysts at periphery
    • type IIb: larger, irregularly shaped daughter cysts occupying almost the entire volume of the mother cyst
    • type IIc: oval masses with scattered calcifications and occasional daughter cysts
  • type III: calcified cyst (dead cyst)
  • type IV: complicated cyst : e.g. ruptures cyst

For hepatic hydatic infection on ultrasound also refer to-World Health Organization 2001 classification of hepatic hydatid cysts

Markers

Radiographic features

Refer to individual articles

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