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Hydropneumothorax

A hydropneumothorax is a term given to the concurrent presence of a pneumothorax as well as a hydrothorax (i.e. air and fluid) in the pleural space.

Pathology

It may arise in various situations which include

Radiographic features

Plain film - chest radiograph

On an erect chest radiograph, recognition of hydropneumothorax can be rather easy - and is clasically shown as an air-fluid level. On the supine radiograph, this may be more challenging where a sharp pleural line is bordered by increased opacity lateral to it within the pleural space may sometimes suggest towards the diagnosis 3, 4

Differential diagnosis

For an air fluid level on plain film - consider 

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