This article is dedicated to the humble joint effusion, particularly the plain radiographic appearances.
A joint effusion is defined as an increased amount of fluid within the synovial compartment of a joint. There is normally only a small physiological amount of fluid. Abnormal fluid accumulation can result from inflammation, infection (i.e. pus) or trauma and may be an exudate, transudate, blood and/or fat.
Recognition of a joint effusion on plain radiographs can be difficult, particularly for the non-radiologist. Appreciation of the typical appearances and signs of joint effusions can assist diagnosis.
Knee joint effusion
A knee joint effusion appears as well-defined rounded homeogeneous soft tissue density within the suprapatellar recess on a lateral radiograph. The effusion will 2:
- separate peri-articular fat pads >10mm
- obliterate the normally crisp posterior border of the quadriceps tendon
- displace the quadriceps tendon and patella anteriorly
Lipohaemarthrosis is a particular type of effusion that occurs in the setting of intra-articular fracture where a fat-fluid level is seen due to marrow fat leaking into the joint via the fracture. Lipohaemarthrosis can occur in other joints (e.g. shoulder) but is most readily identified in the knee.
Elbow joint effusion
The sail sign is the key to recognising an elbow joint effusion. On a lateral radiograph, an effusion causes displacement of the anterior and posterior fat pads surrounding the distal humerus. The triangular appearance of the displaced low density fat pad simulates the appearance of a sail.
An elbow joint effusion in the setting of trauma is very often a sign of an occult fracture In adults the occult fracture is most commonly of the radial head while in children a non-displaced supracondylar fracture should be suspected.
Ankle joint effusion
An ankle joint effusion is best seen as a teardrop-shaped soft tissue density displacing the anterior fat pad on a lateral film and lies superior to the talar neck. Effusion within the posterior recess is usually less well defined. Plain films are sensitive for effusions >5 ml with US and MRI being more sensitive for smaller effusions 3.
- 1. Maskell TW, Finlay DB. The prognostic significance of radiologically detected knee joint effusions in the absence of associated fracture. Br J Radiol. 1990;63 (756): 940-1. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-63-756-940 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Hall FM. Radiographic diagnosis and accuracy in knee joint effusions. Radiology. 1975;115 (1): 49-54. doi:10.1148/115.1.49 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Dodge JP. The ankle teardrop sign. Radiology. 2004;231 (3): 789-90. doi:10.1148/radiol.2313021096 - Pubmed citation
- 4. BACHMAN AL. Roentgen diagnosis of knee-joint effusion. Radiology. 1946;46 (5): 462-9. doi:10.1148/46.5.462 - Pubmed citation
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