Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix are an unusual variation in terms of location for a uterine leiomyoma.
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They are rare and account for ~5% (range 0.6-10%) of uterine leiomyomas 1,4.
Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas, including hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, or abdominal distention, can be identical to those of leiomyomas in the uterine body. They occasionally form polypoid tumours and protrude into the cervical canal or even the vagina when they grow in the submucosal region. Because they are located along the birth canal, they occasionally cause maternal dystocia.
A cervical leiomyoma can sometimes have unusual growth patterns, different to those of a standard uterine leiomyoma 3.
In uncomplicated cases (no degeneration) it is usually seen as a smooth rounded mass centered on the uterine cervix.
Signal characteristics are usually similar to leiomyomas of the uterine body.
General differential considerations for a mass lesion in the uterine cervical region include
- prolapsed submucosal uterine leiomyoma
- carcinoma of the cervix
- lymphoma of the cervix: extremely rare
- melanoma of the cervix: rare; usually involves the vagina with invasion into the cervix 4
- 1. Tiltman AJ. Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix: a study of frequency. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. 1998;17 (3): 231-4. - Pubmed citation
- 2. Brown MA, Mattrey RF, Stamato S et-al. MRI of the female pelvis using vaginal gel. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185 (5): 1221-7. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.1660 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Ueda H, Togashi K, Konishi I et-al. Unusual appearances of uterine leiomyomas: MR imaging findings and their histopathologic backgrounds. Radiographics. 1999;19 Spec No : S131-45. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Okamoto Y, Tanaka YO, Nishida M et-al. MR imaging of the uterine cervix: imaging-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 23 (2): 425-45. doi:10.1148/rg.232025065 - Pubmed citation