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Looser zones

Looser zones (also known as cortical infractions, Milkman's lines or (Looser-)Umbauzonen) are wide, transverse lucencies traversing part way through a bone, usually at right angles to the involved cortex and are associated most frequently with osteomalacia and rickets. They are pseudofractures and considered a type of insufficiency fracture. Typically, the fractures have sclerotic irregular margins, and are often symmetrical. 


  • pubic rami
  • medial proximal femur
  • lateral scapula
  • posterior proximal ulna
  • ribs

History and etymology

It is named after Emil Looser, Swiss surgeon (1877-1936).

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