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Masaoka staging system

The Masaoka staging system is a staging system which is commonly adopted for thymomas 1-3 and is the most important determinant of survival following surgical resection 4.

  • stage I - intact thymic capsule
  • stage II - capsular invasion into adjacent mediastinal fat or pleura.
  • stage III - macroscopic invasion into adjacent organs, vessels
  • stage IV -
    • IVa - dissemination in thoracic cavity (i.e pleural or pericardial implants) 
    • IVb - distant metastases.

Stage II and above are regarded as thymic carcinoma 2.

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