Masaoka staging system
The Masaoka staging system is a staging system which is commonly adopted for thymomas 1-3 and is the most important determinant of survival following surgical resection 4.
- stage I : intact thymic capsule
- stage II : capsular invasion into adjacent mediastinal fat or pleura.
- stage III : mascroscopic invasion into adjacent organs, vessels
stage IV :
- IVa : dissemination in thoracic cavity (i.e pleural or pericardial implants)
- IVb : distant metastases.
Stage II and above are regarded as thymic carcinoma 2.
- 1. Truong MT, Sabloff BS, Gladish GW et-al. Invasive thymoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181 (6): 1504. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) [pubmed citation]
- 2. Wilkins KB, Sheikh E, Green R et-al. Clinical and pathologic predictors of survival in patients with thymoma. Ann. Surg.. 1999;230 (4): 562-72. [free text at pubmed] [pubmed citation]
- 3. Lee HS, Kim ST, Lee J et-al. A single institutional experience of thymic epithelial tumours over 11 years: clinical features and outcome and implications for future management. Br. J. Cancer. 2007;97 (1): 22-8. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603833 [free text at pubmed] [pubmed citation]
- 4 Kim DJ, Yang WI, Choi SS et-al. Prognostic and clinical relevance of the World Health Organization schema for the classification of thymic epithelial tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 108 patients and literature review. Chest. 2005;127 (3): 755-61. doi:10.1378/chest.127.3.755 [pubmed citation]
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