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Primary urethral cancer staging

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows

  • T : primary tumour
    • Tx : primary tumour cannot be assessed
    • T0 : no evidence of primary tumour
    • Tis : carcinoma in situ
    • Ta : non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma
    • T1 : invasion of sub epithelial connective tissue
    • T2 : invasion of corpus spongiosum / prostate or peri urethral muscles
    • T3 : corpus cavernosum, beyond prostate capsule, anterior vagina, bladder neck
    • T4 : invasion of adjacent organs
  • N : nodal status
    • Nx : nodal status cannot be assessed
    • N0 : no nodal involvement
    • N1 : single nodal metastasis < 2cm in greatest dimension
    • N2 : single node more than 2 cm in greatest dimension or multiple nodes
  • M : distant metastases
    • Mx : distant metastatic disease cannot be assessed
    • M0 : no distant metastases
    • M1 : distant metastases present

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