Retroperitoneal liposarcoma

Retroperitoneal liposarcoma is a subtype of liposarcoma, and is a malignant tumour of mesenchymal origin that may arise in any fat-containing region of the body. It is one of the most common primary retroperitoneal neoplasms 2.

Pathology

Histology

There are five histological types:

  • well-differentiated: ~55%, low grade
    • lipoma-like
    • inflammatory
    • sclerosing
  • myxoid: ~30%, low-to-intermediate grade
  • pleomorphic: high grade
  • round cell: high grade
  • dedifferentiated: high grade

Metastatic disease is haematogenous and the extent of metastases is related to the histological grade of the tumour.

Radiographic features

CT
  • heterogenous mass
  • varying amount of fat and soft tissue
  • multiple septae
  • enhancing soft tissue components
MRI
  • myxoid: hyperintense on T2WI with delayed post-contrast enhancement

Treatment and prognosis

The primary treatment option is resection if possible. However, local recurrence is common and occurs in two-thirds of patients. This is usually a sign of incomplete resection and highlights the difficulty in discriminating liposarcomas from normal retroperitoneal fat.

Differential diagnosis

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Article Information

rID: 4974
Section: Pathology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Retroperitoneum liposarcoma
  • Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma
  • Liposarcoma of retroperitoneum
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