Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging, and relies on identification of local tumour extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
The staging system proposed by Sessions et al 3 is the most commonly used and divides tumours into three stages:
- Ia: limited to nasal cavity/nasopharynx
- Ib: extension into one or more paranasal sinuses
- IIa: minimal extension through sphenopalatine foramen into pterygomaxillary fossa
- IIb: fills pterygomaxillary fossa bowing the posterior wall of the maxiallary antrum anteriorly or extending into the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure.
- IIc: extends beyond pterygomaxillary fossa into infratemporal fossa (modified by Radkowski 4)
- stage III: intracranial extension
- 1. Seo CS, Han MH, Chang KH et-al. Angiofibroma confined to the pterygoid muscle region: CT and MR demonstration. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996;17 (2): 374-6. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (abstract) [pubmed citation]
- 2. Principles and Practice of Head and Neck Oncology. Peter Rhys Evans, Paul Q. Montgomery, Patrick J. Gullane. Taylor & Francis Group ISBN:1899066063 (find it at amazon.com)
- 3. Bryan RN, Sessions RB, Horowitz BL. Radiographic management of juvenile angiofibromas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2 (2): 157-66. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (abstract) [pubmed citation]
- 4. Radkowski D, McGill T, Healy GB et-al. Angiofibroma. Changes in staging and treatment. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1996;122 (2): 122-9. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (link) [pubmed citation]