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Thoracolumbar spinal fractures (classification) Magerl

This newer and more elaborate classification1 is based on the three column concept by Denis 2, and the McAfee classification3. It relies exclusively on CT findings.

A: Compression injuries

A1  Impaction fractures
A1.1 Endplate impaction
A1.2 Wedge impaction
A1.3 Vertebral body collapse

A2 Split fractures
A2.1 Frontal split fracture
A2.2 Sagittal split fracture
A2.3 Pincer fracture

A3 Burst fractures
A3.1 Incomplete burst fracture
A3.2 Burst split fracture
A3.3 Complete burst fracture
A3.3.1 Pincer
A3.3.2 Flexion
A3.3.3 Axial

B: Distraction injuries

B1 Predominantly transligamentous flexion-distraction injury
B1.1 with transverse disc disruption
B1.1.1 Flexion subluxation
B1.1.2 Anterior dislocation
B1.1.3 B1.1.1 or B1.1.2 the with fractures of the articular processes
B1.2 with type A vertebral body fracture

B2 Predominantly osseous flexion-distraction injury
B2.1 Transverse bicolumn fracture
B2.2 Posterior osseous disruption with transverse disc disruption
B2.2.1 through the pedicles
B2.2.2 through the interarticular portions (flexion spondylolysis)
B2.3 with type A vertebral body fracture
B2.3.1 through the pedicles
B2.3.2 through the isthmus

B3 Anterior disruption through the disc
B3.1 Hyperextension-subluxation
B3.2 Hyperextension-spondylolysis
B3.3 Posterior dislocation

C: Torsion injuries

C1 Rotation-compression injury
C1.1 Impaction
C1.2 Split
C1.2 Burst

C2 Rotation-distraction injury
C2.1 with transligamentous flexion-distraction
C2.2 with transosseous flexion-distraction
C2.3 with hyperextension-distraction

C3 Rotational shear injury

See also

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