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2-hydroxyglutarate is a metabolite that accumulates in the brains of patients with IDH-1 mutated (IDH-1 positive) brain tumours, particularly diffuse low grade gliomas. Although not in widespread clinical use, it is likely that 2-hydroxyglutarate, which resonates at 2.25 ppm, will be able to be ...

2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours

The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016) it is still the most widely used classification system.  Classification Malignant tumours odonto...

2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.   Classification Hodgkin lymphoma nodular lymphocyte predominance classical Hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing mixed cellularity ...

2011 revision of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern: diagnostic HRCT criteria

As a part of international evidence based guidelines adopted by collaborative effort of American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society and the Latin American Thoracic association,  specific diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (...

2014 WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumors

Endometrial stromal tumours (EST) constitute <2% of all uterine tumours and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms1.  Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modifications starting from the earliest study by Norris and Taylor2. This was primarily due to the ...

20° oblique projection

20° oblique projection is a troubleshooting projection used especially in young women and in follow up patients. Technique The C arm is turned approximately 20° for a superomedio-inferolateral obique. With the patients feet pointing towards the unit and her torso turned slightly outward with t...

22q11.2 deletion syndrome

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (also known as the DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) is a syndrome where a small portion of the chromosome 22 is lost and results in a variable but recognisable pattern of physical and behavioral features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~...

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