Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

411 results found
Article

Rabies encephalitis

Rabies encephalitis is a rapidly progressive CNS infection resulting from infection by a member of an RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus, most commonly transmitted to humans, from infected animals, via a bite. It results in rapid neurological deterioration and in almost all ...
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Raccoon sign

Raccoon sign is periorbital ecchymosis and is indicative of skull base fracture of anterior cranial fossa.
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Rachipagus

Rachipagus twins are extremely rare type of conjoined twins. They are joined in the dorsal aspect and face away from each other. Fusion of the occiput with varying segments of the vertebral column may occur, resulting in the sharing of the spinal cords. The fusion terminates above the sacrum. F...
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Rachischisis

Rachischisis (somtimes known as complete spina bifida) refers to a severe form of spina bifida where there is a cleft through the entire spine. Pathology There is often a severe or complete defect involving the entire spine from the cervical region through to the sacrum. Associations A rachi...
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Rachitic rosary

Rachitic rosary refers to expansion of the anterior rib ends at the costochondral junctions and is most frequently seen in rickets as nodularity at the costochondral junctions. Differential diagnosis Other causes of this appearance include:  scurvy:  the costochondral junction is more angula...
Article

Racing car sign

The racing car sign refers to widely spaced lateral ventricles due to agenesis of the corpus callosum with intervening Probst bundles. Appearances on axial MRI or CT are reminiscent of a formula one car seen from above, with the tires represented by the widely spaced frontal horns, and the dilat...
Article

Radial bands sign

The radial bands sign refers to linear bands seen on MRI, radiating from the periventricular white matter to the subcortical region, thought to be specific for tuberous sclerosis 1-2. Pathology The exact pathogenesis of radial bands is uncertain, but they are thought to relate to dysfuction or...
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Radial head

The radial head is the proximal articular surface of the radius and prone to dislocation in childhood and fracture in adults. It is palpable on the lateral side of the elbow, immediately distal to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Gross anatomy The radial head forms part of the elbow join...
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Radial head fractures

Radial head fractures are, together with the radial neck fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Epidemiology Although fractures of the radial head are seen in all age groups, they usually occur in adults (85% between 20-60 year...
Article

Radial hemimelia

Radial hemimelia is a congenital absence of the radius bone of the forearm characterised by partial or total absence of the radius. Epidemiology It occurs in 1:30,000-100,000 live births, and is slightly more common in males than in females (sex ratio of 3:2). Pathology This deformity is bel...
Article

Radial meniscal tear

A radial meniscal tear is a form of meniscal tear where the tear extends radially from the free edge of the meniscus. Pathology They run perpendicular to the tibial plateau. The long axis of the meniscus transects the longitudinal collagen bundles as it extends from the free edge toward the pe...
Article

Radial neck

The radial neck is a feature of the proximal radius. Proximal radial fractures commonly involve both the neck and shaft in children. Gross anatomy The radial neck is the constriction distal to the head. The radial tuberosity is an oval prominence distal to the neck on the medial aspect, which ...
Article

Radial neck fractures

Radial neck fractures are, together with the radial head fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph The elbow is typically radiographed in AP and lateral projections, although an oblique view...
Article

Radial nerve

The radial nerve is one of five main branches of the brachial plexus. It provides motor and sensory innervation to the arm and forearm and sensory innervation to the hand.  Summary origin: one of the two posterior cords of the brachial plexus course: posteromedially with the axillary vessels,...
Article

Radial ray anomaly

Radial ray anomalies comprise of a large spectrum of upper limb anomalies which range from partial (radial hypoplasia) to a complete (radial aplasia) deficiency of the radius with or without accompanying deficiency of the thumb bones. Pathology Associations They can be associated with a numbe...
Article

Radial scar

Radial scar (or complex sclerosing lesion) in a breast is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors however reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance ...
Article

Radial tunnel syndrome

Radial tunnel syndrome is an entity that refers to entrapment of the radial nerve in the forearm, as it occurs in the supinator syndrome. Some authors believe this is an early form of the posterior interosseous nerve syndrome 5. Clinical presentation The syndrome is characterized by pain along...
Article

Radiation and chemotherapy induced cystitis

Both radiation and chemotherapy can result in severe haemorrhagic cystitis, the appearances of which vary with time from the therapy. It can be divided into acute and chronic.  Acute In the acute phase of radiation and chemotherapy cystitis, there is a hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to denudat...
Article

Radiation enteritis

Radiation enteritis is a bowel pathology resulting from toxic effects of radiotherapy on the bowel wall and vasculature.  Epidemiology 5-15% of patients treated with radiotherapy (usually > 4500cGy) develop chronic radiation enteropathy. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation is ...
Article

Radiation induced lung disease

Radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is a frequent complication of radiotherapy to the chest for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies and can have a variety of appearances, especially depending on when the patient is imaged. Acute and late phases are described, corresponding to radiation pn...
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Radiation induced MRI signal changes in bone

Radiation induced MRI signal changes in bone are the earliest detectable changes in bone. They increase with increase in the radiation dose. Pathology 1st week: decreased marrow cellularity with oedema and haemorrhage 2nd week: increased marrow cellularity due to influx from unirradiated area...
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Radiation induced vasculopathy

Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy encompasses a complex and broad range of effects on the intra and extracranial vessels resulting from injury from radiation exposure. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms are broad and depend on the underlying vasculopathy. Radiation-induced telangiec...
Article

Radiation pneumonitis

Radiation pneumonitis is the acute manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with changes seen in the the late phase. Please refer to the article on radiation-in...
Article

Radiation-associated lens opacities

Radiation-associated lens opacities, also known as radiation induced cataracts, address changes in the lens of the eye by radiation. Pathogenesis The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Exposure to ionizing radiation can cause cataract formation which can dev...
Article

Radiation-induced glioma

Radiation-induced gliomas are a rare complication of cranial irradiation, occurring in less than 3% of cases 15 years post treatment. Glioblastomas correspond to three-quarters of all radiation induced gliomas.  The risk of developing a secondary CNS cancer following radiation exposure has been...
Article

Radiation-induced meningiomas

Radiation-induced meningiomas (RIM) are more frequently multiple and have a very long latency. Meningiomas are a much more frequent complication of radiation exposure compared to sarcomas or gliomas. Epidemiology The exact incidence of radiation-induced meningiomas is unknown - one study had a...
Article

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is the late manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with changes seen in the the acute phase. Please refer to the article ...
Article

Radiation-induced rib fracture

A radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) refers to occurrence of a rib fracture following administration of radiation to the a region close to a rib or within a path of a rib. They are considered a relatively common occurrence, especially after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy...
Article

Radiation-induced sarcoma

Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) can originate in either the irradiated bone or soft tissues after a period of latency. They are usually high-grade tumours with a poor prognosis when compared with primary sarcomas. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma and osteosarcoma are the two most common histologic...
Article

Radio-embolisation

Radio-embolisation is the delivery of radio-active microspheres to cancers using an endovascular approach. It is often performed as an outpatient procedure.  Indications primary liver cancer or liver metastases bilirubin of <2.0 tumour size less that than 70% of liver size Contraindicati...
Article

Radiocapitellar line

The radiocapitellar line is one of the key lines used to assess alignment on the elbow radiograph. It is particularly useful in the paediatric setting. The rule A line drawn down the neck of the radius should intersect the capitellum. It is important to ensure that you draw the line down the r...
Article

Radiocarpal joint

The radiocarpal joint is a major synovial joint of the wrist and is an example of a condyloid joint.  Gross anatomy Osteology The distal radius broadens to possess a large surface, and has a radial styloid process that usually extends 9-12 mm distal to the articular surface of the ulnar. This...
Article

Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation is a medical procedure that uses a high frequency alternating current produced by a radiofrequency generator oscillating in a closed loop circuit. This high frequency current causes heating to over 60 °C which leads to protein denaturation and tissue damage. Applications...
Article

Radiofrequency coils

Radiofrequency coils (RF coils) are the "antenna" of the MRI system, broadcasting the RF signal to the patient and / or receiving the return signal. RF coils can be receive-only, in which case the body coil is used as a transmitter; or transmit and receive (transceiver). Surface coils...
Article

Radiographic assessment of basilar invagination

Five lines have been described and used by most of the radiologists to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal and lateral skull plain film as well as coronal and mid-saggital recontructed CT images. This is based on relative projection of odontoid process to these lines, which is as follows ...
Article

Radiographic evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Radiographic evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft involves: femoral component: a line is drawn along the posterior cortex of the femur a second line is drawn along the roof of the intercondylar notch of the femur (Blumensaat line) the point of intersection of t...
Article

Radiographic features (article structure)

Radiographic features is one of the main subheadings in most articles.  Location The "Radiographic features" subheading is located after "Pathology" and before "Treatment and Prognosis". Structure Before any modality specific features are discussed, general appe...
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Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before) posterior ...
Article

Radiographics update initiative

As of 2015 we are routinely taking selected articles from each issue of the amazingly excellent review publication Radiographics (RSNA publication) and ensuring our content is up to date.  These articles are given to relevant section editors and their task is then as follows:  read the article...
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Radiography article structure

There are two main types of radiography article.  Radiographic series These articles describe the set of projections that make up a series that might be requested by a clinician, e.g. they would request a wrist X-ray, to get a PA and lateral view, together these are termed the series. Each ar...
Article

Radioisotope spills

Radioisotope spills are classified as major or minor Examples of major spills include quantities equal to or larger than: 1mCi I-131 100 mCi Tc-99m or Tl-201 10 mCi Ga-67, In-111, or I-123
Article

Radiological anatomy

Anatomy encompasses the structure, position, and interrelation of any parts of an organism. Radiopaedia.org aims to eventually cover the entire human anatomy, particularly in relation to the practice of radiology. All articles use standard anatomic conventional nomenclature and the anatomic posi...
Article

Radiological signs: gastrointestinal tract

Radiological signs are described across the disciplines of imaging, including the gastrointestinal tract. Fruit-inspired, nature-related, and more feature in the list of signs described for a wide array of pathology. How fascinating are the minds of radiologists work in describing pathology?
Article

Radiologically isolated syndrome

Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) is defined by MRI findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in asymptomatic ("clinically silent") patients. Radiological progression usually occurs in approximately 66% of patients with RIS, while ~ 33% per 5 year period will subsequently dev...
Article

Radiologist

What is a radiologist? A radiologist is a specialist doctor who uses medical imaging such as x-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and angiography, to diagnose and treat human disease or injury. Radiologists undergo lengthy training and assessment in order to be accredited by relevant governing boards and...
Article

Radiology art

Radiology art, involving various modalities from x-ray to MRI, represent fun and unique non-medial applications for relatively inaccessible modes of imaging. Ranging from downright strange to incredibly beautiful, radiology art is a hobby practiced by many in the medical field.  For some great ...
Article

Radiology training for chiropractic radiologists in the United States of America

Radiology training for chiropractic radiologists in the United States of America includes a minimum of 3 years of residency after obtaining a doctor of chiropractic degree (DC), which is largely focused on musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology. A small number of chiropractic radiologists pursue a one ...
Article

Radiology training in Australia and New Zealand

Radiology training in Australia and New Zealand is a five-year program overseen by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR). Radiology training can start after two years working as an intern / hospital medical officer (resident) in an approved hospital.  There are ...
Article

Radiology training in Brazil

Radiology training in Brazil is a three-years programme overseen by both the Brazilian College of Radiology (in Portuguese: Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia, CBR) and the Ministry of Education. The radiology training can start after completion of the general six-year medical training programme,...
Article

Radiology training in Canada

Radiology training in Canada is provided by one of 16 radiology programmes that operate throughout the country. Examinations and accreditation is through the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Training programmes Residency programmes in diagnostic radiology run at: Universit...
Article

Radiology training in India

Radiology training in India is a two/three years program depending on the course opted for. Courses DNB: Diplomate of national board (3 years) MD: Doctor of medicine (3 years) DMRD: Diploma in medical radiodiagnosis (2 years) The entry to these courses is through different sets of examinati...
Article

Radiology training in the Netherlands

Radiology training in the Netherlands is a five-year programme overseen by the Dutch Association for Radiology (in Dutch: Nederlandse Vereniging voor Radiologie, NVvR). Radiology training can start after completion of the general six-year medical training programme, which is awarded with the de...
Article

Radiology training in the Republic of Ireland

Radiology training in the Republic of Ireland is postgraduate specialist training in radiology in a training programme under the auspices of the Faculty of Radiologists at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. The duration of training is 5 years leading to a Certificate of Completion of Spec...
Article

Radiology training in the UK

Radiology training in the UK is a popular and worthwhile specialty. Training is usually taken over a 5 year period with general training across the first three years and sub-specialty training in the last two years. Entry to training is nationwide through a central interview process. Entrants ...
Article

Radiology training in the United States of America

Radiology training in the United States of America is a five-year residency after obtaining a medical degree (MD or DO). The majority of residency graduates pursue a one or two year fellowship after graduating from a residency program. The pathway currently consists of: PGY 1 (postgraduate yea...
Article

Radiolucent lesions of the mandible

Lucent lesions of the mandible are not uncommon and may be the result of odontogenic or non-odontogenic processes. Lucency may be conferred by a cystic process (e.g. periapical cyst) or a lytic process (e.g. mandibular metastases). Pathology Aetiology Odontogenic periapical (radicular) cyst ...
Article

Radiopaedia iOS radiology app

This app is the successor to the successful series of Radiopaedia.org radiology teaching files that have been available through the iTunes app store for a number of years.  Find it in the iTunes app store here.  After many months of development we launched our highly anticipated new iOS app fo...
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Radiopaedia.org on your CV

Many contributors enquire how best to list Radiopaedia.org contributions on their CV or resume. While this format is up to the individual, below is a suggestion on an appropriate format.  Listing contributions under a separate Publications subheading is suggested because of the Wiki-based natur...
Article

Radiopaedia.org Supporter

Radiopaedia.org Supporter is someone who values what we are trying to accomplish, and is willing to help us with small periodic financial contributions. In return, we share access to a few perks.  What we can accomplish with your support Our mission is to create the best possible radiology ref...
Article

Radiopharmaceuticals

Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs that are bound to radioactive substances.  The pharmaceutically active portion determines the activity that will be measured and the radioactive portion emits radiation that can be measured by the scanner. A number of radiopharmaceuticals are used in human imaging...
Article

Radius

The radius is one of the two long bones presents in the forearm. It is located laterally in the supinated anatomic position. It has a smaller proximal end and enlarges to a larger distal end (opposite to the ulna).  Gross anatomy Osteology The proximal radius comprises the radial head and imm...
Article

RadLex

RadLex is a lexicon of radiological information that has been produced by the RSNA.  It is an ontological system whose principle aim is to develop a useful vocabulary for radiologists.  In the words of the RSNA "As images, imaging reports, and medical records move online, radiologists nee...
Article

Raghib syndrome

Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex, which consists of persistence of the left superior vena cava along with coronary sinus ostial atresia and atrial septal defect. It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement of th...
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Rai staging system for chronic lymphoid leukaemia

The Rai staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It comprises of stages 0 to IV and classifies chronic lymphocytic leukemia into low, intermediate and high-risk categories, which correspond with stages 0, I & II...
Article

Raindrop skull

The appearance of multiple, well-defined lytic lesions (punched out lesions) of various size scattered throughout the skull constitutes the raindrop skull appearance of multiple myeloma. This term is applied as an analogy to rain hitting a surface and splashing, where it leaves a random pattern ...
Article

Ramsay Hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RMS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is essentially shingles of the facial nerve. Latent infection is present in the geniculate ganglion with painful vesicles showing in the external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane and pinna associated with facial palsy. There may b...
Article

Ramus intermedius artery

The ramus intermedius is a variant coronary artery resulting from trifurcation of the left main coronary artery 1. It is present in ~20% (range 15-30%) 2-3 of the population. It can have a course similar to the obtuse marginal branches of the left circumflex artery or the diagonal branches of t...
Article

Ranawats line

Ranawats line is the perpendicular distance between centre of the sclerotic ring of C2 and a line drawn along the axis of C1 vertebra Normal value is 17mm in males and 15mm in females. It is deceased in basilar invagination .
Article

Randall's plaques

Randall's plaques are described as subepithelial calcification of the renal papilla 1 which are <2 mm in their greatest dimension. They act as an anchor for calcium oxalate crystals and are considered to be predisposing factor for renal stone formation.  Clinical presentation Usually asympt...
Article

Random pulmonary nodules

Random pulmonary nodules refer to a distribution pattern of pulmonary nodules where there pattern of involvement with respect to the lung lacks a an architectural prdominance. These nodules affect the fissures, peribronchovascular structures and the center of the secondary pulmonary nodules. The...
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Ranke complex

Ranke complex is seen in 'healed' primary pulmonary tuberculosis comprised of two parts: Ghon lesion: calcified parenchymal tuberculoma ipsilateral calcified hilar node
Article

RANO criteria for glioblastoma

Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Criteria (RANO), published in 2010 1, are used to assess response to first-line treatment of glioblastoma, (as well as lower grade astrocytoma3) and have largely superseded the older Macdonald criteria (which only dealt with GBM) 2. For a general discussion...
Article

Ranson criteria

Ranson's criteria are useful in assessing prognosis in early acute pancreatitis. The more of the criteria are met the higher the mortality. Ranson's criteria are assessed both at admission and at 48 hours. Criteria On admission age: >55 years white blood count: >16 000/mm blood glucos...
Article

Ranula

Ranulas are a rare benign acquired cystic lesion that occur at the floor of mouth. Epidemiology For reasons that are unclear, they appear to be more common in the Maori of New Zealand and Pacific Island Polynesians 7. Clinical presentation Ranulas present as a mass either in the floor of mou...
Article

RANZCR anatomy paper 1

The RANZCR anatomy paper 1 is part of the first part RANZCR examinations. The RANZCR website contains up to date information on the format of the exam here. Format This exam is in a "write short notes" style and consists of 15 questions of equal weighting. The exam length is 120 min...
Article

RANZCR anatomy paper 2

The RANZCR anatomy paper 2 is part of the first part RANZCR examinations. The RANZCR website contains up to date information on the format of the exam here. Format This exam has eight questions, each with three components: identification of structures arrowed on different imaging studies (la...
Article

RANZCR applied imaging technology paper 1

RANZCR applied imaging technology (AIT) paper 1 is one of two physics components of the RANZCR part 1 examination.  The RANZCR website contains up to date information on the format of the exam here. Format AIT paper 1 is an e-exam in short answer format consisting of 10 questions of 10 marks ...
Article

RANZCR applied imaging technology paper 2

RANZCR applied imaging technology (AIT) paper 2 is one of two physics components of the RANZCR part 1 examination.  The RANZCR website contains up to date information on the format of the exam here. Format AIT paper 2 consists of 100 MCQs (best answer of 5 stems) taken in 120 minutes. It is a...
Article

RANZCR examination

The RANZCR examination is set by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and consists of two parts: RANZCR part 1 typically first attempted during the first year of training, and is a barrier to progression into year 3 consists of written examinations in anatomy and phys...
Article

RANZCR part 1 examination

The RANZCR part 1 examination is a series of four papers covering anatomy and physics and are a hurdle requirement to advance into third year of radiology training in the Australian and New Zealand radiology training program.  Since September 2013 the exams have been delivered electronically. T...
Article

RANZCR part 2 examination

The RANZCR Part 2 examination is a set of written and viva examinations that are typically first attempted in the 4th year of radiology training, and are one of the requirements for the awarding of fellowship of the college (FRANZCR). In order to be eligible to sit the part 2 examination, traine...
Article

RANZCR part 2 written examinations

The RANZCR part 2 written examination is a set of 3 written examinations that are typically first attempted in the 4th year of radiology training, and are one of the requirements for the awarding of fellowship of the college (FRANZCR). In order to be eligible to sit the part 2 examination, train...
Article

RANZCR pathology MCQ exam

The RANZCR pathology MCQ exam is part of the RANZCR part 2 examination. Format The examination consists of 100 multiple choice questions, each with a stem and 5 possible answers, and is of 2 hours in duration. Since August 2012 the examination has been delivered electronically. Currently it i...
Article

RANZCR radiodiagnosis MCQ exam

The RANZCR radiodiagnosis MCQ exam is part of the RANZCR part 2 examination. Format The examination consists of 100 multiple choice questions, each with a stem and 5 possible answers, and is of 2 hours in duration. Since August 2012 the examination has been delivered electronically. Currently ...
Article

RANZCR radiodiagnosis written exam (e-Film reading)

The RANZCR radiodiagnosis written exam (e-Film reading) is part of the RANZCR part 2 examination. Format The exam consists of 8 questions of equal value. Each question comprises a case (or two) with a clinical history, and relevant imaging with one or a number of different imaging modalities. ...
Article

RANZCR viva examinations

The RANZCR viva examinations are part of the RANZCR part 2 examinations. These are typically held around two months after the written examinations. Candidates are not aware of their marks in the written examinations prior to sitting the vivas. From 2016, the exams are held in either Sydney or Me...
Article

Rapid ultrasound in shock

The Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and...
Article

Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip

Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip is a rare chondrolysis of unknown aetiology which can progress to complete destruction of the femoral head. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. Epidemiology It is most common in middle aged to elderly females in almost all reported case series. Clinic...
Article

Rapunzel syndrome

Rapunzel syndrome is the term for a trichobezoar (gastric 'hair ball') which has a tail-like extension  into the small bowel through the pylorus causing gastric outlet obstruction. Human hair (especially long hair) is resistant to digestion as well as peristalsis. So it tends to stay in the sto...
Article

Rasmussen aneurysm

Rasmussen aneurysm (not to be confused with Rasmussen encephalitis) is an uncommon complication of pulmonary tuberculosis and represents a pulmonary artery aneurysm adjacent or within a tuberculous cavity.  Epidemiology It can be present in up to 5% of patients with chronic cavitary tuberculos...
Article

Rasmussen encephalitis

Rasmussen encephalitis (RE), also known as chronic focal encephalitis (not to be confused with a Rasmussen aneurysm), is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, usually affecting one brain hemisphere. Epidemiology Most cases (85% cases) occur in children under the age of 10 years 1. ...
Article

Rastelli procedure

The Rastelli procedure is a surgical procedure to correct certain combinations of cardiovascular defects in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Rationale The operation is based on a redirection of ventricular outflows using an intracardiac baffle that tunnels the left ventricle to...

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