Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

564 results found
Article

T cell prolymphocytic leukaemia

T cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is a rare and unusual haematological malignancy. Epidemiology It represents around 2% of all mature lymphocytic leukaemias in adults over the age of 30 1. It usually affects older adults with an average age at presentation being around 65 years. There ma...
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T sign

The "T sign" is really the absence of a twin-peak sign (or lambda sign) and is used in ultrasound assessment of a mulifetal pregnancy. It refers to the lack of chorion extending between the layers of the intertwin membrane, denoting a monochorionic pregnancy. The intertwin membrane co...
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T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity

The T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity is as follows: Oral cavity The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferio...
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T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour

The T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour is as follows Definition The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region. T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour...
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T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx

The T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx is as follows: Definition: The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferiorsurface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posteriortonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior ...
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T tube cholangiogram

T-tube cholangiograms are a fluroscopic study performed in the setting of hepatobiliary disease. Typically a T-shaped tube is left in the common bile duct at the time of surgery (e.g. cholecystectomy) and allows for exploration of the common bile dict (choledochotomy) and retrieval of common bi...
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T-shaped uterus

T-shaped uterus refers to a specific radiographic appearance of the endometrial cavity. Pathology It is the most commonly associated abnormality from in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, seen in 31% of exposed women. It is classified as a class VII Müllerian duct anomaly. Background D...
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T1 black holes

T1 black holes are hypointense lesions commonly seen on T1WI in patients with multiple sclerosis, and indicates the chronic stage with white matter destruction, axonal loss and irreversible clinical outcome. There is a correlation between the number of black holes and patient positive outcome3.
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T1 relaxation time

The T1 relaxation time, also known as the spin-lattice relaxation time, is a measure of how quickly the net magnetisation vector (NMV) recovers to its ground state in the direction of B0. The return of excited nuclei from the high energy state to the low energy or ground state is associated with...
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T1 rho

T1 rho, also referred to as T1ρ or "spin lock", is an MRI sequence that is being developed for use in musculoskeletal imaging. At the moment it is mostly investigational and does not yet have widespread clinical use. The "rho" in the sequence name refers to a "ro"t...
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T1 vertebra

T1 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a complete facet for the 1st rib and a demifacet for the 2nd rib. It contains lips on the upper surface of the body. T1 also has a spinous process more horizontal than other thoracic vertebrae.  
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T1 weighted image

T1 weighted image (also referred to as T1WI or "spin-lattice" relaxation time) is one of the basic pulse sequences in MRI and demonstrates differences in the T1 relaxation times of tissues. A T1WI relies upon the longitudinal relaxation of a tissue's net magnetisation vector (NMV). Ba...
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T11

T11 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a single costal facet with no facets on transverse processes.  
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T12

T12 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a single costal facet with no facets on transverse processes.
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T2 blackout effect

T2 blackout effect is a diffusion weighted imaging phenomenon, representing the reverse of T2 shine through. The 'true' diffusion signal (as determined by ADC values) is reduced on DWI images (e.g. B=1000) by the presence of very low T2 signal (on B=0 images). 
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T2 dark spot sign

T2 dark spot sign is an MRI appearance of endometriomas seen as a result of chronic haemorrhage. The sign is useful in differentiating a solitary endometrioma from a functional haemorrhagic ovarian cyst, as both might show high T1 signal with T2 shading.  The T2 dark spot, described in the sign...
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T2 hyperintense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is: LINT Mnemonic L: lymphoma I: ischaemia N: neurodegenerative conditions T: toxins See also For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article. 
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T2 hypointense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic: ChOMP Mnemonic ChOMP Ch: childhood hypoxia O: old age M: multiple sclerosis P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
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T2 relaxation

T2 relaxation refers to the progressive dephasing of spinning dipoles following the 90° pulse as seen in a spin-echo sequence due to tissue-particular characteristics, primarily those that affect the rate of movement of protons, most of which are found in water molecules. This is alternatively k...
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T2 shine through

T2 shine-through refers to high signal on DWI images that is not due to restricted diffusion, but rather to high T2 signal which 'shines through' to the DWI image. T2 shine through occurs because of long T2 decay time in some normal tissue. This is most often seen with subacute infarctions due ...
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T2 washout

T2 washout is a phenomenon encountered on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) which results in DWI images (e.g. B = 1000) appearing normal despite abnormal ADC maps.  For the phenomenon to occur a particular combination of ADC and T2 signal intensity is required.  increased T2 signal facilitated...
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T2 weighted image

T2 weighted image (T2WI) is one of the basic pulse sequences in MRI. The sequence weighting highlights differences in the T2 relaxation time of tissues. Summary TR: long TE: long flip angle: less important than with T1 weighting fat: intermediate-bright fluid: bright Physics A T2WI relie...
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T2* relaxation

T2* decay refers to an exponential decrease in Mxy  (i.e. signal strength) following the initial excitation pulse as a function of time constant T2*. A picture of the signal or free induction decay (FID) is shown on the right, occurring immediately after a 90o RF excitation pulse in a liquid pha...
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Tabar 5-tier grading system

The Tabar 5-tier grading system is used to classify mammographic lesions. This should not be confused with the Tabar classification of parenchymal patterns in breast imaging. It is a separate but translatable system to the BI-RADS classification system (please note that Tabar grade 3 ≠ BI-RADS 3...
Article

Tabes dorsalis

Tabes dorsalis is a form of tertiary neurosyphilis in which there is demyelination of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. Clinical presentation Patients present with symptoms related to dorsal column/nerve-root involvement such as weakness, sensory ataxia (tabetic gait), lancinating pain...
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Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy

Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) (or tachycardiomyopathy) is considered a reversible form of acquired cardiomyopathy where there is impaired left ventricular systolic dysfunction precipitated by a tachycardia or a tachyarrhythmia. Typically there is an impairment left ventricular systol...
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Taeniae coli

The taeniae coli are the three outer muscular bands of the colon. They sit on top of the inner circumferential layer and result in the classical appearance of the colon: the haustral markings are interrupted unlike the valvulae conniventes within the small bowel.
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Tags

Tags on radiopaedia.org allows authors to specify a little more about what the article is and allows articles to be more completely related to articles that are similar. Additionally there are a number of 'official tags'.  articles cases =  [articles only] cases needed to illustrate art...
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Tailgut duplication cyst

Tailgut duplication cysts (TGC), also known as retrorectal cystic hamartomas, are rare congenital lesions that are thought to arise from vestiges of the embryonic hindgut.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection. While it can present at any age presentation is usually at...
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Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TA), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is thou...
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Takeuchi procedure

The Takeuchi procedure refers to a direct anastomosis of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta was described in the 1970s and currently remains the procedure of choice. An intrapulmonary aortocoronary tunnel or baffle was performed by Takeuchi prior ...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a condition which has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women following exposure to sudden, unexpected emotional or physical stress.  Pathology There is a transient left ventricular dysfunction and there is no evidence of obstructive epicardial cor...
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Talar beak sign

The talar beak sign is seen in cases of tarsal coalition, and refers to a superior projection of the distal aspect of the talus. It is most frequently encountered in talocalcaneal coalition 1-2. It is thought to result from abnormal biomechanic stresses at the talonavicular joint.  Differential...
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Talar declination angle

The talar declination angle is drawn on the weightbearing lateral foot radiograph between the mid-talar axis and the supporting surface. It should usually measure approximately 21 degrees. If the first metatarsal axis is steep, the mid-talar axis approaches the horizontal and is projected above...
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Talar dislocation

There are many types of talar dislocation given its multiple articulations: tibiotalar dislocation subtalar dislocation total talar dislocation talonavicular dislocation ​Chopart fracture-dislocation
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Talar fractures

Talar fractures are an uncommon injury, accounting for <5% of all foot fractures. Recognition of the unique talar anatomy is important for correct diagnosis. Pathology Location talar head fractures talar neck fractures talar body fractures talar dome osteochondral fracture posterior ta...
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Talar head fracture

Talar head fractures most commonly result from a compressive force with a plantar flexed foot. Pathology Talar head fractures almost always involve the talonavicular joint, and associated dislocation/subluxation is common. Two types of talar fractures are described 3: compression fracture, o...
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Talar neck fracture

Talar neck fractures extend through the thinnest cross-sectional portion of the talus, just proximal to the talar head. They represent one of the most common types of talus fracture (~30-50%), along with chip and avulsion fractures of the talus (~40-49%). These fractures are commonly associated ...
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Talc induced lung disease

Talc induced lung disease comprises of a group of pathologies that can occur related to talc (Magnesium silicate) Four types of pulmonary disease secondary to talc exposure have been defined these include: talco-silicosis - associated with occupational exposure talco-asbestosis - associated w...
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Talc pulmonary embolism

Talc (Magnesium trisilicate) pulmonary embolism is a rare cause of non thrombotic pulmonary embolism. It tends to me more prevalent in patients with narcotic abuse. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic although dyspnea and persistent cough occur with severe talc exposure. Clini...
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Talcosis

Talcosis is a type of pneumoconiosis and can be prevalent in intravenous drug users. It is one of the four recognised types talc induced lung disease. Pathology Talc (magnesium silicate) is used in the preparation of tablets intended for oral use, where it acts as a 'filler' and lubricant. Whe...
Article

Talocalcaneal angle

The talocalcaneal angle (also known as kite angle) refers to the angle between lines drawn down the axis of the talus and calcaneus measured on a weightbearing DP foot radiograph. This angle varies depending on the position of the calcaneus under the talus and the stiffness of the ligaments of t...
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Talocalcaneal coalition

Talocalcaneal coalition is one of the two most common sub-types of tarsal coalition, the other being calcaneonavicular coalition. It accounts for 45% of all tarsal coalitions, and although all three facets of the talocalcaneal joint can be involved, the middle facet is most commonly involved.  ...
Article

Talocalcaneal joint

The talocalcaneal joint, also called the anatomical subtalar joint, is an important and complex joint in the hindfoot that allows articulation of the talus and calcaneus. Gross anatomy It comprises three articulations between talus and calcaneus 1: anterior: head of talus with anterior facet ...
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Talus

The talus is a tarsal bone in the hindfoot that articulates with the tibia, fibula, calcaneus, and navicular bones. It has no muscular attachments and around 60% of its surface is covered by articular cartilage.  Gross anatomy The talus has been described as having three main components: head,...
Article

Tam o' shanter sign

The "tam o' shanter" is a Scottish hat, named after the character in Robert Burn's 1 poem of the same name. The appearances of advanced Paget disease of the skull are similar in appearance to the hat.  Paget involvement of the skull, with widening of the diploic space and an overall e...
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Tamm-Horsfall proteins

Tamm-Horsfall proteins may be a cause of echogenic renal pyramids in a neonate. Tamm-Horsfall proteins excreted by the renal tubular epithelium. They are most often encountered on neonatal renal ultrasound, where the concentrated proteins in the renal pyramids may mimic nonobstructing renal sto...
Article

Tamoxifen associated endometrial changes

Tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium and is associated with a number of pathologies. It is associated with an increased prevalence of  endometrial polyps: can occur in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: can occur in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic end...
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Tanaka criteria

The Tanaka criteria (or Fukuoka consensus guidelines) is a classification system for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs). The original international consensus guidelines (2006) were referred to as the  Sendai criteria. This later evolved into th...
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Tangential calcium sign

A tangential calcium sign is a sign seen with an aortic aneurysm rupture. The calcified intimal rim is discontinuous and is seen to tangentially point away from the aneurysmal lumen. This sign is seen at the point of breach. There is associated retroperitoneal leakage.  
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Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...
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TAR syndrome

TAR syndrome stands for thrombocytopaenia with absent radius and as the name implies is primarily characterised by the following two features: fetal thrombocytopaenia absent fetal radii (bilaterally) with the presence of both thumbs Epidemiology The condition is extremely rare with an estima...
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Tardus parvus

Tardus parvus refers to a particular pattern of Doppler ultrasound spectral waveform. It commonly occurs downstream from significant arterial stenosis, and in particular is useful in assessing for renal artery stenosis.  Radiographics features tardus: prolonged systolic acceleration (i.e. slow...
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Target sign of choledocholithiasis

The target sign of choledocholithiasis is a finding seen on contrast enhanced CT and comprises: central density within the bile duct: stone surrounding low density: bile or mucosa
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Target sign of intussusception

There are many target signs, one of which the the appearance of intestinal intussusception, also known as the doughnut sign. The appearance is generated by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechogenic bands. The echogenic bands are formed by mucosa and muscularis whereas the submucosa is ...
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Target sign of neurofibromas

The target sign of neurofibromas is seen on MRI and represents a T2 hyperintense rim surrounding a central area of low signal. It is believed to be due to a dense central area of collagenous stroma. Although this sign is highly suggestive of a neurofibroma, it is occasionally also seen in schwa...
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Target sign of pyloric stenosis

The target sign of pyloric stenosis is a sign seen due to hypertrophied hypoechoic muscle surrounding echogenic mucosa, seen in pyloric stenosis. This is likened to that of a target. See also antral nipple sign cervix sign of pyloric stenosis shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis
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Target sign of tuberculosis

The target sign of tuberculosis refers to the bull's-eye appearance of some parenchymal tuberculomas involving the brain (see: CNS tuberculosis) and solid abdominal organs (see: hepatic and splenic tuberculosis) on cross-sectional imaging.  Radiographic features CT central nidus of calcificat...
Article

Tarlov cyst

Tarlov cysts, also called perineural cysts, are CSF filled dilatations of the nerve root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion (posterior nerve root sheath). These are type II spinal meningeal cysts that are, by definition, extradural but contain neural tissue. Epidemiology They occur in ~5% of t...
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Tarsal bones

The tarsal bones are the seven bones of the foot excluding the metatarsals and phalanges. They are collectively known as the tarsus. The seven bones are: talus calcaneus navicular cuboid lateral cuneiform intermediate cuneiform medial cuneiform There are several mnemonics for the tarsals.
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Tarsal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the tarsal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location of tarsal bones. They usually describe the position of the tarsal bones from superior to inferior, medial to lateral in a right foot: The Cab in New Mexico Is Land Cruiser The Cure of Nemaline Myopathy I...
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Tarsal coalition

Tarsal coalition describes complete or partial union between two or more bones in the midfoot and hindfoot. Tarsal coalition refers to developmental fusion rather than fusion that is acquired secondary to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, trauma or post-surgical. Epidemiology It occurs ...
Article

Tarsal sinus

The tarsal sinus (or sinus tarsi) is a cylindrical cavity located between the talus and calcaneus on the lateral aspect of the foot.  Gross anatomy The tarsal sinus is situated on the lateral side of the foot; distal and slightly anterior to the lateral malleolus. It is a space bordered by the...
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Tarsal tunnel

The tarsal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal found in the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Boundaries roof: flexor retinaculum floor: medial surfaces of the talus and calcaneus 1, 2 Contents From anterior to posterior:  tibialis posterior tendon flexor digitorum longus tendon neu...
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Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) refers to an entrapment neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve or of its branches within the tarsal tunnel. This condition is analogous to carpal tunnel syndrome. While carpal tunnel syndrome is usually bilateral, tarsal tunnel syndrome is unilateral. For better u...
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Tattoo sign - mammogram

The tattoo sign is a feature given to describe dermal calcifications seen on mammography 1. The basis of this sign is that dermal calcifications maintain fixed relationships to one another which are reproducible with similar projections at different times. This is in contrast to intramammary cal...
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Tau sign

The tau sign represents the appearance of a persistent trigeminal artery on the sagittal plane of an angiogram or on sagittal MRI images. It resembles the greek letter 'tau'. Persistent trigeminal artery arising from the junction between the petrous and cavernous ICA and runs posterolaterally al...
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Tauopathies

Tauopathies are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by abnormal metabolism of tau proteins leading to intracellular accumulation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). These neurofibrillary tangles are deposited in the cytosol of neurons and glial cells.  ...
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Tay sachs disease

Tay-Sachs disease is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from excess storage of GM2 ganglioside within the lysosomes of cells.  Epidemiology The incidence of the disease is estimated to be 1 in 3600 in Ashkenazi Jews with carrier frequency of 1 in 30 and 1 in 360,000 in other pop...
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Taylor dysplasia

Taylor dysplasia is a type of focal cortical dysplasia and a common cause of refractory epilepsy. Under both the Palmini classification and the more recent Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia, Taylor dysplasia is classified as type II.  For further discussion of the radiographic ...
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Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in paediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for the assessment of renal cortex as it binds to th...
Article

Tc-99m DTPA

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2.5 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics uptake by glomerular...
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Tc-99m DTPA (aerosol)

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) (aerosol) is one of the technetium agents and is used in VQ imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 1 hour normal distribution: lungs pharmacokinetics: aerosol deposited in bronhoal...
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Tc-99m HMPAO labelled WBC

Tc-99m HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) labelled WBC is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in WBC imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 4 hours normal distribution: spleen, liver, kidney, bone m...
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Tc-99m labeled RBC

Tc-99m labelled RBC is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life:  normal distribution: heart, vessels, spleen miscellaneous facts: threshold for detecti...
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Tc-99m MAA

Tc-99m MAA (microaggregated albumin) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in lung perfusion imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2-3 hours normal distribution: lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys pharmacokinetics: >90...
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Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 4 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics: uptake by tubular secretion (9...
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Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half life biological half life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: renal, GI target organ: thyroid,...
Article

Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart excretion: hepatobiliary target organ: colon, kidneys, bladder, gallbladder Uses, doses and timings parathy...
Article

Tc-99m Sulfur colloid

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life normal distribution:  liver: 85% spleen: 10% bone marrow: 5% excretion: hepatic target organ: liver, spleen pharmacokin...
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Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogues

Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogues are hepatobiliary agents in nuclear medicine, used in cholescintigraphy. These include: Tc99m-DISIDA: diisopropyl IDA, aka Hepatolite Tc99m-Mebrofenin: trimethyl bromo IDA, aka Choletec Tc99m-PIPIDA: paraisopropyl iminodiacetic acid The use of IDA al...
Article

Tear drop sign of the superior mesenteric vein

Tear drop sign of the superior mesenteric vein  is one of the important signs in the staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma . Its importance lies in its diagnosis as well as prognostic significance . This sign is used in assessing the resectability of pancreatic cancer. Radiographic appearance C...
Article

Technetium 99m-methyl diphosphonate

Technetium 99m-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP) is a radioisotope used in nuclear medicine especially for bone scans. Any disease process which results in extracellular fluid expansion will lead to accumulation of this isotope. Radionuclide profile photon energy: 140 keV physical half life: 6...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agent in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise imaging of various structures: Tc-99m ECD: CNS ima...
Article

Technique of masking

Masking is very important when viewing mammograms, especially with high-density breasts. It helps the adaptation of the eye to the luminance of the mammograms on the viewbox.                     Technique of masking allows the comparative study of small areas of both breasts and is a ...
Article

Tectal beaking

Tectal beaking refers to fusion of midbrain colliculi into a single beak pointing posteriorly and invaginating into cerebellum. It is seen with a Chiari type II malformation.
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Tectal glioma

Tectal gliomas fall under the grouping of childhood brainstem gliomas and unlike the other tumours in that group they are typically low grade astrocytomas with good prognosis.  Epidemiology Tectal plate gliomas are encountered in children and adolescents 4. A male predilection has sometimes be...
Article

Tectorial membrane of the spine

The tectorial membrane is the continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament from the body of the axis upward. It joins the axis body to the clivus on the anterior half of the foramen magnum. Spinal dura mater is firmly attached posteriorly, also serving as a ligament.
Article

Teeth

Teeth can be both primary and secondary, with the eruption of permanent teeth occurring over a long period between the ages of 6 and 24.  Gross anatomy There are twenty deciduous (primary) teeth in young children, with ten per jaw and five in each quadrant, which consist of: two molars one c...
Article

Tegmentum

The tegmentum (Latin: "hood") is one of the areas of the brainstem. It is a phylogenetically old part of the brainstem and in adults, is the location of the brainstem nuclei.  In the midbrain, it sits between the quadrigeminal plate and cerebral peduncles. In the pons, it is posterior...
Article

Tela choroidea

The tela choroidea is the thin, highly vascularised, loose connective tissue portion of pia mater that gives rise to the choroid plexus. Thus, it is basically the lamina propria of the ependyma and lies directly adherent to it, without any tissue in between the two 6. Gross anatomy Being part ...
Article

Telangiectasiae

A telangiectasia commonly refers to a group of abnormally prominent capillaries that occur close a mucosal surface. Rarely they are also referred to denote vascular malformations at other non mucosal sites (e.g capillary telangiectasiae of the brain 1) Associations There are numerous condition...
Article

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma

Telangiectatic osteosarcomas (TOS) are an uncommon variant of osteosarcoma that represent 2.5-12% of all osteosarcomas.  Epidemiology TOS have similar demographics to that of conventional osteosarcoma and typically presents in adolescents and young adults (reported age range of 3-67 years with...

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