Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

287 results found
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20° oblique projection

20° oblique projection is a troubleshooting projection used especially in young women and in follow up patients. Technique The C arm is turned approximately 20° for a superomedio-inferolateral obique. With the patients feet pointing towards the unit and her torso turned slightly outward with t...
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5-tier ACR system of radiologic breast findings

The 5-tier ACR system was a previously used system for classification of radiologic breast findings, proposed by the American College of Radiologists (ACR). It is no longer in widespread use, having been gradually superseded by the new 6-tier BIRADS classification system first published in 1992....
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Aberrations in the normal development and involution of the breast

Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an all encompassing term that is used to describe a wide spectrum of the benign breast diseases. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encountered benign breast disorders are essentially minor...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: central core comprised of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessels a...
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Accessory breast tissue

Accessory breast tissue is a relatively common congenital condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. This normal variant can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary streak (axilla to the inguinal...
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are a rare histological subtype of adenocarcinoma. Pathology ACCs are generally considered low grade 4. The tumors have notable tendency for perineural spread. Location They have wide distribution and mainly occur in relation to the airways, lacrimal glands and...
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare subtype of breast cancer. Epidemiology They account for only 0.1-0.4% of all breast cancers. Pathology The tumour demonstrates a strikingly characteristic microscopic pattern similar to that of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gl...
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Adenomatous breast lesions

Adenomatous breast lesions are benign tumors which grow from glandular parenchyma.  The breast is a conglomeration of various glandular tissues, hence they can be of several types.  tubular adenoma lactating adenoma apocrine adenoma of breast pleomorphic adenoma of breast ductal adenoma Fi...
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Adenosis of the breast

Adenosis of the breast is a benign lobulocentric proliferative process in which lobules are enlarged and increased in number in addition to an increased number of glands within each lobule. Pathologically subclassified into three main subtypes which include: sclerosing adenosis of the breast ...
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Altered breast density between two mammograms

Mammographic screening detects early breast cancers and thereby reduces potential mortality. However, its sensitivity is inversely related to breast density 1.  Altered density between two mammograms can arise in a number of situations: Affecting both breasts: interval commencement/cessation ...
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Amastia

Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pathology During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
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Amazia

Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts and a normal nipple and areola complex.  Epidemiology This is a very rare entity and the true prevalence is not known. Although there are strict definition criteria, the di...
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Amorphous calcification within breast

Amorphous or indistinct calcifications are a morphological descriptive term for breast calcification and are defined as having small, hazy, faint calcifications with no clearly defined shape or form.  Radiographic features 80-200 micrometer in diameter small, hazy calcification often magnifi...
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Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumors of the breast they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers, and tend to occur in younger women, 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma has an estimated incidence of ~0.09-0.16% and occurs in older...
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Apocrine carcinoma of the breast

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. The diagnosis is mainly pathological as its difficult to differentiate from other forms of breast cancer on imaging. Epidemiology It accounts for about 4% of all the cases. It is seen most often in females in the age group of...
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Apocrine metaplasia of the breast

Apocrine metaplasia of the breast is a benign breast condition and is sometimes considered part of or associated with fibrocystic change. It is a common finding in the female breast particularly after the age of 25 and many regard it as a normal component of the breast. Epidemiology Seen mostl...
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Architectural distortion in mammography

Architectural distortion is a mammographic descriptive term in breast imaging. It may be visualised as tethering or indentation of breast tissue.  Pathology Architectural distortion per se is not a mass. It is often due to a desmoplastic reaction in which there is focal disruption of the norma...
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Artifacts that mimic breast calcification

Artifacts that mimic breast calcification can arise from a number of sources. They include on skin from deodorants: most practices recommend that clients for mammography do not use deodorant or perfume on the day of the study for this reason. The residue from deodorant is a very fine, dense, m...
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Aschoff's proliferative centre

An Aschoff’s proliferative centre (CPA) also sometimes known as a radial scar is not really a scar, but an idiopathic entity not correlated with past trauma It histologically presents single or multiple areas of proliferative adenosis  which branch off from an area of ​​fibroelastosis, often as...
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Asymmetrical density in mammography

Asymmetrical mammographic density is a mammographic morphological descriptor. It is given when there is increased density in one of the breasts, on either one or both standard mammographic views but without evidence of a discrete mass. An asymmetrical density can be further characterised as: ma...
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Asymmetry in breast size

Asymmetry in breast size can arise from a number of factors. Pathology Breasts are rarely absolutely the same size or volume. Normal variation is common. Most females have slight discrepancies in breast size. Asymmetric progressive breast enlargement is unusual but known. The role of the breas...
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Atypical ductal hyperplasia

Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a histologically borderline lesion that has some, but not all the features of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Sometimes the distinction between ADH and DCIS is simply on the basis of the number of ducts involved.  Pathology Atypical ductal hyperplasia is a...
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Atypical lobular hyperplasia

Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) is a pre-malignant lesion of the breast which falls at the milder end of the spectrum of lobular neoplasia. It is therefore considered a part of borderline breast disease.  Clinical presentation It is usually asymptomatic and mammographically occult, and is i...
Article

Automated full-field volumetric ultrasound

An automatic full-field volumetric breast ultrasound scanner (AFFBUS) is a developing technology which was initiated to overcome the drawback of dense breast and to get a three dimensional view of the breast.  Components scan station view station Scan station Automatic ultrasound imaging ac...
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Axillary nodes

Axillary lymph nodes (LN) are in the axilla and receive lymph from vessels that drain the arm, the walls of the thorax, the breast and the upper walls of the abdomen. Gross anatomy Surgical levels There are three levels of axillary lymph nodes: level I - bottom level, below the lower edge of...
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Axillary view

An axillary view (also known as a "Cleopatra view“) is a type of supplementary mammographic view. It is an exaggerated craniocaudal view for better imaging of the lateral portion of the breast to the axillary tail. This projection is performed whenever we want to show a lesion seen only in ...
Article

Balloon breast brachytherapy

Balloon breast brachytherapy (BBB) is a technique for delivering radiation treatment in women with early stage breast cancer. It is given after lumpectomy, or surgical removal of a small breast cancer and is a short alternative to the more traditional method of using seven weeks of external beam...
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Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound

Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound allow the classification as either malignant, intermediate or benign based on work published by Stavros et al in 1995. Radiographic features Ultrasound Malignant characteristics (with positive predictive values) sonographic...
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BI-RADS 0

BIRADS 0 category is one of six from the breast imaging reporting and data system, and is used when imaging is incomplete such as: when further imaging or information is required, e.g. compression, magnification, special mammographic views, ultrasound when requesting previous images not availa...
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BI-RADS I

A BIRADS I category under the breast imaging reporting and data system is when no finding is present in an imaging modality (not even a benign finding).
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BI-RADS II

BI-RADS II is a benign category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have essentially a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat containing lesions such a...
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BI-RADS III

BIRADS III is an intermediate category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. While it is usually classified as benign or probably benign, a finding placed in this category should have a very high probability of being benign. The risk of malignancy in a BIRADS III lesion is considered ...
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BI-RADS IV

A BIRADS IV lesion under the breast imaging reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BIRADS IV lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
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BIRADS V

A BIRADS V lesion under the BIRADS (breast imaging reporting and data system) refers to a lesion that is highly suspicious for malignancy, requiring appropriate action to be taken (i.e. biopsy and management as appropriate). BIRADS V lesions have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer wi...
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BIRADS VI

BIRADS VI is a new addition to the ACR (American College of Radiology) BIRAD system. The prior classification system was a 5 tier system. The current system is a 6 tier system. According to the current BIRADS tier, patients with biopsy proven cancer prior to definitive therapy would be category...
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Borderline breast disease

Borderline breast disease (BBD) refers to a group of conditions while being not completely malignant are still concerning. Usually an excision biopsy is recommended if entities falling into borderline breast disease is detected on core biopsy. These entities include: atypical ductal hyperplasi...
Article

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat localised prostate cancer, breast c...
Article

Breast

The breast is an apocrine gland seen in both males and females. However, in females it has a specific function which is the production of milk. Gross anatomy Composition The breast has an inhomogeneous structure which is predominantly composed of adipose tissue and glandular tissue. In additi...
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Breast abscess

A breast abscess is a relatively rare but significant complication of mastitis that may occur during breastfeeding, particularly in primiparous women. The clinical context is a key to diagnosis as imaging appearances (particularly ultrasound) can mimic many other entities such as breast carcinom...
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Breast amyloidosis

Amyloid deposition in the breast is predominantly of two forms    breast involvement in primary amyloidosis - commoner in association with other conditions like multiple myeloma, plasmacytosis and rheumatoid arthritis and another in the localised form which is rarer.  Clinical features usua...
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Breast aneurysm

Breast aneurysms are a rarely seen cause of a breast mass. Pathology Types true aneurysm: occurs post trauma and is seen as a slowly enlarging pulsatile mass false aneurysm / pseudoaneurysm: occurs in acute trauma, post percutaneous biopsy, due to spontaneous haemorrhage secondary to coagulo...
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Breast calcifications

Breast calcifications can arise from a vast number of aetiologies.  Epidemiology They are extremely common and can be present in ~85% of mammograms 8. Their frequency increases with age. Up to 50% of breast cancers can be associated with calcification while 15-30% of calcifications biopsied fo...
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Breast calcifications (an approach)

Breast calcifications are relatively frequently found on mammograms and are indicative of focally active process, however about 80% of these processes are benign. Thus the ability to distinguish these calcifications based on their morphological characteristics, size, number and distribution is i...
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Breast cancer metastases

Metastases from breast cancer can be a frequent finding in routine onco-radiological practice. Clinical presentation With the universal use and acceptance of screening mammography, the isolated clinical presentation from metastases from breast carcinoma have become rare in clinical practice. H...
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Breast cancer staging

Breast cancer staging uses the TNM staging system and then into stage groupings. Classification TNM staging Primary tumour (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1 T1a: 0.1-0.5 cm T1b: 0.5-1.0 cm T1c: 1.0- 2.0 cm T2: 2-5 cm ...
Article

Breast cellulitis

Breast cellulitis is an acute pyogenic inflammatory change involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. This can be secondary to any wound, surgery or radiation for breast carcinoma. Clinical presentation inflammatory changes such as oedema, swelling and redness of the involved breast  no de...
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Breast core biopsy

Percutaneous breast biopsy is one of the current choices for focal histopathological assessment of breast lesions. In contrast to fine needle aspiration, during a core needle biopsy, a hollow needle is used to withdraw small cores of tissue from the area of interest in the breast.  This procedu...
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Breast curriculum

The breast curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent core breast knowledge. Definitions Topics pertaining to the breast.  Anatomy An understanding of the anatomy of relevant structures is essential. Core anatomical topics include: du...
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Breast cyst

Breast cysts are a relatively common cause of a breast lump in perimenopausal women, and usually causing wage pain or discomfort and slightly tender on palpation. They are a benign (BIRADS II) entity. Pathology Breast cysts are caused by blockage of the terminal acini with resultant dilatation...
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Breast density

Breast density on mammography can significantly vary between individuals. The density is a function of the relationship between radiolucent fat and radiodense glandular tissue. Breast density varies with age and generally younger women have denser breasts (i.e. more glandular tissue relative to...
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Breast ductography

Breast ductography (a.k.a. galactography) is an imaging technique which is used to evaluate lesions causing nipple discharge. It helps in precisely locating the mass within breast tissue and gives useful information for surgical approach and planning. Technique A blunt-tipped sialogram needle ...
Article

Breast haematoma

Breast haematoma can result from preceding direct trauma, surgery, biopsy (rare) or contusion and can be easily misinterpreted as other lesions such has breast malignancy if the correct clinical context is not taken into account. They can rarely occur spontaneously, especially in those with coag...
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Breast hamartoma

Breast hamartoma (also known as a fibroadenolipoma) is a benign breast lesion. Epidemiology They typically occur in women older than 35 years of age.  Clinical presentation While it can present as a painless soft lump, it may also present as unilateral breast enlargement without a palpable l...
Article

Breast hypoplasia

Breast hypoplasia is a condition which is characterised by underdevelopment of the breast. Breast hypoplasia can be congenital or acquired. Pathology Congenital hypoplasia Associations include: ulnar-mammary syndrome Poland syndrome Turner syndrome congenital adrenal hyperplasia Acquired...
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Breast imaging and the technologist

Breast screening and diagnostic programmes cannot exist without the technologists. They play an indispensable role in the acquisition of mammogram and ultrasound images  in both screening and diagnostic settings. The mammogram technologist: the primary responsibility of the "mammo tech&quo...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BIRADS)

BIRADS classification is proposed by American College of Radiology, last updated in November 2015, and is widely used classification system at time of writing this article (July 2016). The BIRADS acronym stands for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System which is a widely accepted risk assessm...
Article

Breast implant rupture

Breast implant ruptures are a recognised complication of a breast implant. It can be intra- or extracapsular. Pathology After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (scar) forms around the implant shell. Implant ruptures may be intracapsular (~85%) or extracapsu...
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Breast implants

Breast implants are increasingly common in general breast radiology practice. Classification Location Breast implants may be placed behind the glandular tissue but in front of the pectoral muscle: sub-glandular sub-mammary retro-glandular retro-mammary The second position of breast impla...
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Breast lesion localisation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember breast lesion localisation when given a set of mammograms (MLO and CC) is: muffins rise and lead falls This can help localise the lesion into the quadrant (e.g. upper, outer) to make ultrasound correlation easier. Mnemonic muffins rise: if the lesion is located me...
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Breast lipoma

Breast lipomas are a benign breast lesion and is classified as a BIRADS II lesion. Clinical presentation Lipomas are mostly asymptomatic and coincidentally discovered on routine mammography. Patients may present with a painless palpable breast lump which is soft and mobile. In these cases the ...
Article

Breast lumps

Breast lumps have different characteristics that allow simplification of differential diagnosis by breaking down the vast list into sections. Consider whether the lump fits into one of these categories. Spiculated lesion Spiculation is a feature of neoplasms and all masses that display spicula...
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Breast lymphoma

Breast lymphoma refers to involvement of the breast with lymphoma and may be primary or secondary. Epidemiology Both primary and secondary breast lymphoma are rare accounting for ~ 0.5% (range 0.3-1.1%) of all breast malignancies. Clinical presentation Breast lymphoma may present either as a...
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Breast MRI

Breast MRI is a rapidly growing field, especially in the assessment of high risk women.  Editorial board note: this article is probably outdated, lacks structure and is in need of a major rewrite. If you are interested in refining it you are more than welcome. Sequences used T1 T2 T1 C+ (Gd...
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Breast MRI enhancement curves

Following administration of Gadolinium there can be three possible enhancement kinetic curves for a lesion on breast MRI. These are sometimes termed the Kuhl enhancement curves. type I curve: progressive enhancement pattern typically shows a continuous increase in signal intensity throughout t...
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Breast neoplasms

There are many types of breast neoplasms, which can be divided into the following broad over simplified categories as a starting point. intra-lobular (epithelial and stromal) inter-lobular breast lymphoma metastasis to breast Intralobular and interlobular refer to the terminal duct lobular...
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Breast sarcoma

Breast sarcoma refers to a relatively heterogenous group of rare breast tumours which can include: angiosarcoma of the breast pleomorphic sarcoma of the breast fibrosarcoma of the breast myxofibrosarcoma of the breast leiomyosarcoma of the breast primary osteosarcoma of the breast Epidem...
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Breast screening programmes

The breast screening program is where mammography is carried out in asymptomatic women for the improved detection of breast cancer. Each country/state has its own program and some are listed as below (accurate as of Dec 2010). Australia: primarily targeted at women between 50-74 every two year...
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Breast sebaceous cyst

Breast sebaceous cyst, also sometimes known as an epidermal inclusion cyst or simply epidermoid cyst, is a benign breast lesion (BIRADS II).  For a general discussion of this entity outside the breast, please refer to epidermal inclusion cysts.  Terminology The two terms, breast sebaceous cys...
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Breast ultrasound

Breast ultrasound is an important modality in breast imaging. It is the usual initial breast imaging modality in those under 30 years of age in many countries. In assessing for malignancy, is important to remember that one must use most suspicious feature of 3 modalities (pathology, ultrasound,...
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Breast varix

Breast varix is, as the name suggests, varices in the breast that are focally dilated veins in the breast.  Pathology If varices are seen bilaterally then a cause for central venous obstruction (superior vena cava syndrome) could be the underlying aetiology with the varices being a part of the...
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Breast venous malformation

Breast venous malformations (also known as breast haemangiomas) are benign vascular lesions occurring within breast tissue. Most breast venous malformations are so called cavernous malformations, which are found throughout the body. For a general discussion please refer to the general article o...
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Breast within a breast sign

The breast within a breast sign refers to the common mammographic appearance of breast hamartomas (fibroadenolipomas). Since these benign lesions are well-circumscribed and contain a mixture of fibrous, glandular and fatty tissue (just like normal breast), it is not surprising that they appear v...
Article

Bullseye view

The bullseye view is designed for better evaluation of lesion located in retroareolar area. In this view, the nipple-areola complex are directed upward or downward on the detector surface to visualize the areolar and periareolar region en face,  allowing characterization of lesions in this area.
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Calcific cluster

In mammography, the term calcific cluster is usually given to where at least five microcalcifications in one cubic centimetre (that is 1 square cm) on two projections on a non-magnified contact view 1. Pathology Aetiology Homogeneous, smooth clustered microcalcifications can be due to 2: fib...
Article

Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Capsular contracture

Capsular contractures are a potential complication of a breast implant and refers to a tightening and hardening of the capsule that surrounds a breast implant. It is a condition that can distort the shape and cause pain in the augmented breast. It seems to be the commonest complication post-brea...
Article

Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
Article

Caudal cranial projection

Caudal cranial projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique invert the C arm as for a CC projection step the patient forward and have her bend excessively forward at the waist to ensure that the abdomen does not encroach in the x ray field place the image receptor above the b...
Article

Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Despite the ubiquity of use of these terms, many represent outdated and mis...
Article

Chassaignac bursa

Chassaignac bursa (also known as retromammary bursa or submammary serous bursa) is the space behind the breast.  It contains loose connective tissue and aids in mobility of the breast on the thoracic wall. Posteriorly it is bound by the pectoral fascia and anteriorly by the deep layer of the su...
Article

Classification of DCIS

The new pathological classification of DCIS is based on cytonuclear atypia, degree of necrosis, size, and distance from margin/architecture. Low and intermediate grades DCIS require cytologic, architectural and size criteria to be met but high-grade DCIS requires only cytologic criteria; this is...
Article

Clavipectoral fascia

Clavipectoral fasica  is a sheet of loose connective tissue which is the deep layer of fascia in the pectoral region. It acts to suspend the floor of the axilla.  Gross anatomy The clavicpectoral fascia lies below the clavicular head of the pectoralis major. It fills in the space between the c...
Article

Cleavage view

A cleavage view (also called "valley view") is a mammogram view that depict the posteromedial portion of both breasts (the “valley” between the two breasts) by placing them on the cassette at the same time and pulling them anteriorly.  Manual technical factors should be used. A cleav...
Article

Coarse macrocalcifications within the breast

Coarse macrocalcifications within the breast are a morphological descriptive term for a type of breast calcification.  Associations   involuting fibroadenomas ( classical popcorn calcification ) chronic renal disease with hypercalcaemia 1  rarely seen in malignancy  2 invasive breast carci...
Article

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions (CAPSS) is a pathological entity encountered when breast biopsies are done for investigation of punctate or amorphous calcifications. CAPSS involves the terminal ductal and lobular units (TDLU's). It is sometimes classified under t...
Article

Columnar cell lesions of the breast

Columnar cell lesions of the breast comprise of wide range of breast lesions which are commonly characterised by columnar cells lining the terminal ductal and lobular unit. These range from those that show little or no cytologic or architectural atypia to those that show sufficient cytologic and...
Article

Comedo type ductal carcinoma in situ

A comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ, also known as comedocarcinoma in situ is the high grade subtype of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).  It completely fills and dilates the ducts and lobules in TDLU with plugs of high grade tumour cells with central necrosis "comedonecrosis".  It ...
Article

Complex breast cyst

Breast cysts may be simple, complicated, or complex. The current preferred term for complex breast cysts is "solid and cystic mass" to avoid confusion with a complicated cyst. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound Complicated cysts albeit well defined contain some low level intern...
Article

Complex fibroadenoma

Complex fibroadenoma is a sub type of fibroadenoma harbouring one or more of the following features: epithelial calcifications papillary apocrine metaplasia sclerosing adenosis and  cysts larger than 3 mm Epidemiology Complex fibroadenomas tend to occur in older patients (median age, 47 ye...
Article

Conditions involving the nipple-areolar complex

The nipple areolar complex is a major aantomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions. Variant anatomy amazia polythelia nipple retraction or inverstion enlarged nipple Be...
Article

Contrast enhanced mammography

Contrast enhanced mammography (CEM) is a complementary breast imaging modality. A finite number of sequential images are obtained with X-ray beam produced at a high energy, above the K-edge of Iodine, and with an intravenous non-ionic Iodine contrast agent  injected between pre and post contrast...
Article

Cooper ligament

Cooper ligaments are the fibrous connections between the inner side of the breast skin and the pectoral muscles. Working in conjunction with the fatty tissues and the more fibrous lobular tissues, they are largely responsible for maintaining the shape and configuration of the breast. They bear a...
Article

Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterised by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden naevus, when it is considered a type o...

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