Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

843 results found
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4D syndrome

4D syndrome is a term given to syndromic glucagonomas, a type of pancreatic endocrine tumour. D: dermatitis (necrolytic migratory erythema, often involving the groin) D: diabetes D: deep vein thrombosis D: depression
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A-rings

A-rings are a type of distal oesophageal ring. They are above the B-ring and occur a few centimetres proximal to the gastro-oesophageal junction. They represent a physiological contraction of oesophageal smooth muscle covered by mucosa. A-rings are uncommonly symptomatic.
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AAST injury scoring scales

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) is the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorising traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management and aids in prognosis. At the time of writing (mid 2016), 32 different injury scores are av...
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AAST spleen injury scale

The 1994 revision of American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale is the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma at the time of writing (mid 2016).  Classification grade I subcapsular haematoma <10% of surface area capsular laceration <1 cm dept...
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Abdominal adhesions

Abdominal adhesions are bands of scar tissue (fibrous or fibrous fatty), most often occurring as a complication of previous abdominal surgery. Pathology Adhesions often occur with multiple abdominal operations or previous postoperative intra-abdominal complications history of intra-abdominal i...
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Abdominal cavity

The abdominal cavity is divided into two major compartments, the peritoneum and retroperitoneum, early in fetal development. The parietal peritoneum is reflected over the peritoneal organs to form a series of supporting peritoneal ligaments, mesenteries and omenta. The peritoneal reflections ca...
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Abdominal hernia

Abdominal herniations may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on location and content. 75-80% of all hernias occur in the inguinal region. Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops mobile colon segments (s...
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Abdominal opacities

An opacity projecting over the abdomen has a broad differential. Possibilities to be considered include: foreign bodies ​ingested, e.g. coins, batteries, bones, etc artifacts, e.g. object attached to the cloth of the patient like a safety pin or button iatrogenic, e.g. haemostatic clips, gas...
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Abdominal organ echogenicity (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps to remember the relative echogenicity of abdominal organs on ultrasound: Darling Parents So Love Kids Mnemonic From most to least echogenic: D: diaphragm P: pancreas S: spleen L: liver K: kidneys(cortex)
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Abdominal paracentesis

Abdominal paracentesis, more commonly referred to as an ascitic tap, is a procedure that can be performed to collect peritoneal fluid for analysis or as a therapeutic intervention. Indications diagnostic: especially for newly diagnosed ascites determine aetiology of ascites assess for bacter...
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Abdominal radiograph (AP supine view)

AP supine radiograph can be performed as a standalone projection or as part of an acute abdominal series, depending on the clinical question posed, local protocol and the availability of other imaging modalities. Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back, either on the X-ray ...
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Abdominal radiograph (AP supine view: neonatal)

AP supine radiograph for neonates is performed as a mobile examination on the neonatal unit. It can be performed as a standalone projection or as part of a series including a left lateral decubitus x-ray in cases of suspected perforation.  Patient position patient is supine, lying on their bac...
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Abdominal radiograph (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus abdominal radiograph is used to identify free intraperitoneal gas (pneumoperitoneum). It can be performed when the patient is unable to be transferred to, or other imaging modalities (e.g. CT) are not available. The most useful position for detecting free intraperitoneal ai...
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Abdominal radiograph (lateral view)

The lateral view abdominal radiograph is a useful problem-solving view that can complement frontal views of the abdomen. It is different than the lateral decubitus view of the abdomen and looks more like a lateral lumbar spine view. Patient position the patient may be either erect or recumbent...
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Abdominal radiograph (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is often obtained in an acute abdominal series of radiographs. Patient position the patient is standing, with ventral abdomen toward the image detector no rotation of shoulders or pelvis should include the entire transverse width of the patient (if possible;...
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Abdominal radiography

Abdominal radiography can be useful in many settings. Before the advent of computerised tomography (CT) imaging, it was a primary means of investigating gastrointestinal pathology (and often allowed indirect evaluation of other abdominal viscera). Indications Although abdominal radiography has...
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Abdominal surface anatomy

The abdomen, when looking from in front, is divided into nine regions by imaginary planes (two vertical and two horizontal) forming abdominal surface anatomy. The nine regions are of clinical importance when examining and describing pathologies related to the abdomen. The horizontal planes are o...
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Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns

Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns on CT scan can be grouped under five categories: white enhancement gray enhancement water halo sign fat halo sign black attenuation The first three patterns are seen on contrast studies. White enhancement It is defined as uniform enhancement of th...
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Abnormal collection of barium anywhere (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used for abnormal collection of barium anywhere in the body : FEDUP Mnemonic F: fistula E: extravasation D: diverticulum U: ulcer P: perforation
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Abnormal intra-abdominal gas

Abnormal intra-abdominal gas may be seen on a chest or abdominal radiograph, or CT or MRI. pneumoperitoneum retropneumoperitoneum pseudopneumoperitoneum abnormally located bowel, e.g. Chilaiditi syndrome (bowel interposed between liver and hemidiaphragm), inguinal hernia intramural gas abs...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: central core comprised of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessels a...
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Accessory appendicular artery

The accessory appendicular artery (or artery of Seshachalam) or is a branch of the posterior caecal artery, which in turn arises from the ileocolic artery, and runs in the mesoappendix. The exact prevalence of this accessory artery and its impact upon the risk of appendicitis varies among studi...
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Accessory parotid glands

Accessory parotid glands are a normal variant and represent ectopic salivary tissue present away and separate from the main parotid gland 1. Epidemiology Accessory parotid glands are not rare and are seen in ~20% of the general population 2. Gross anatomy Located on the masseter muscle, ante...
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Accordion sign

The accordion sign is seen on CT examinations of the abdomen and refers to the similarity between the thickened oedematous wall of pseudomembranous colitis to that of an accordion. The appearance arises as a result of oral contrast being trapped between oedematous haustral folds and pseudomembra...
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Achalasia

Achalasia (primary achalasia) refers to a failure of organised oesophageal peristalsis with an impaired relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), resulting in often marked dilatation of the oesophagus and food stasis. Obstruction of the distal oesophagus (often due to tumour) has been...
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Acute abdominal series

The acute abdominal series is a common set of abdominal radiographs obtained to evaluate bowel gas.  Indications The acute series is used for a variety of indications including:  determine the amount of bowel gas, with possible bowel distention asses air-fluid levels query pneumoperitoneum ...
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Acute cholecystitis (summary)

Acute cholecystitis refers to the acute inflammation of the gallbladder. It is the primary complication of cholelithiasis and the most common cause of acute pain in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). Summary epidemiology most common in those with gallstones fat, fertile (20-40), female patients...
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Acute gastritis

Acute gastritis is a broad term for myriad causes of gastric mucosal inflammation.  Epidemiology  Depends on the aetiology (see below).  Clinical presentation asymptomatic epigastric pain/tenderness nausea and vomiting loss of appetite  Pathology  Aetiology infection: H. pylori (most c...
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Acute necrotic collection

Acute necrotic collections (ANCs) are an early, local complication of necrotising pancreatitis. Terminology The following are the latest terms according to the updated Atlanta classification to describe fluid collections associated with acute pancreatitis 1,2: fluid collections in interstitia...
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Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis refers to acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life threatening condition. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made by fulfilling two of the following three criteria 8: acute onset of persistent, severe epigastric pain (i.e. pain consistent with acute p...
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Acute pancreatitis (summary)

Acute pancreatitis refers to acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life threatening condition. Summary epidemiology epidemiology is dependant on the cause of pancreatitis gallstones, idiopathic, alcohol, malignancy, metabolic conditions presentation acute onset, severe ce...
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Acute peripancreatic fluid collection

Acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFC) are an early complication of acute pancreatitis that usually develop in the first four weeks. After four weeks, the term pseudocysts is used. The absence of necrosis differentiates APFCs from acute necrotic collections (ANC), that is, APFCs occur in ...
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Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion, which can then result in an acute mesenteric ischaemia, can be a life threatening event related to the artery supplying the majority of the small bowel and right side of the colon.  Epidemiology  An acute occlusion is an uncommon event that typically...
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Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis is one of the less common causes of intestinal ischaemia.  For a general discussion refer to intestinal ischaemia.  Epidemiology Compared to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion or ischaemia secondary to small bowel obstruction, acute superior m...
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Adenocarcinoma of duodenum

Duodenal adenocarcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the duodenum. Epidemiology Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the duodenum. It represents 0.3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. It accounts for  50-70% of small bowel adenocarcinomas occurring ei...
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Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

Primary adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is about 50 times less common than colonic carcinoma. Pathology Almost 50% of small bowel adenocarcinomas are found in the duodenum, especially near the ampulla. In the remaining cases, the jejunum is more commonly involved than the ileum1. Risk facto...
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Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder

Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is a hyperplastic cholecystosis of the gallbladder wall. It is a relatively common and benign cause of diffuse or focal gallbladder wall thickening. It is most easily seen on ultrasound and MRI.  Epidemiology Adenomyomatosis is relatively common, found in ~9%...
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Adrenal lymphangioma

Adrenal lymphangiomas (also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas) are rare, benign vascular adrenal lesions. Epidemiology According to one series, there may be a slight right-sided and female predilection 3. Pathology It is supposed to occur as a result of a developmental abnormality of lym...
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Adrenal metastases

Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland. Metastases are usually bilateral but may also be unilateral. When unilateral involvement is thought to be more prevalent on the left side (ratio of 1.5:1). Epidemiology They are thought to be present in up to...
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Adrenal washout

Adrenal washout can be calculated using the Hounsfield unit value of an adrenal mass on non-enhanced, portal venous phase and 15 minutes delayed CT-scans. It is primarily used to diagnose adrenal adenoma. absolute washout [(HUportal venous phase) - (HUdelayed)] / [(HUportal venous phase) - (HU...
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Adynamic ileus

Adynamic ileus is the failure of passage of enteric contents through small bowel and colon that is not mechanically obstructed. Essentially it represents the paralysis of intestinal motility. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms similar to a mechanical bo...
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Afferent loop syndrome

Afferent loop syndrome is an intermittent partial or complete mechanical obstruction of the afferent limb of a gastrojejunostomy. The syndrome classically refers to obstruction of the upstream limb of a side-to-side gastrojejunostomy, but has also been used to refer to the biliopancreatic limb ...
Article

AFP elevation

Human alpha fetoprotein (AFP) elevation may occur in a vast number of conditions: liver tumours (hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma) <10 ng/ml is within normal limits >20 ng/ml is above normal limits but has low specificity for tumor since it may occur in a setting of diffuse live...
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AIDS defining illness

AIDS defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are: Infectious bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent candid...
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Allgrove syndrome

Allgrove syndrome (also known as triple A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive condition that consists of three main findings: achalasia alacrima ACTH insensitivity
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Amoebic colitis

Amoebic colitis is a type of infectious colitis, more common in tropical and subtropical areas. The causative agent is a trophozoite of Entamoeba histolytica. The cyst form may live normally in the colon as commensal. Clinical presentation Amoebic colitis presents with abdominal pain and dysen...
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Ampulla of Vater

The ampulla of Vater is a conical structure at the confluence of the common bile duct (CBD) and the main pancreatic duct that protrudes at the major duodenal papilla into the medial aspect of the descending duodenum. The entire structure is encased by smooth muscle fibers that compose the sphinc...
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Ampullary tumour

The term ampullary tumour generally refers to either benign or malignant neoplasms that arise from the glandular epithelium of the ampulla of Vater, including 1: ampullary adenoma (adenoma of ampulla of Vater) ampullary carcinoma (carcinoma of ampulla of Vater) According to some authors, ampu...
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Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC

The Amsterdam criteria are used in the diagnosis hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Amsterdam Criteria I Initial description in 1991: > or equal to 3 relatives with colorectal cancer (CRC) > or equal to 1 case in a first degree relative > or equal to 2 successive g...
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Amyand hernia

Amyand hernia is a rare form of inguinal hernia in which the vermiform appendix is located within the hernial sac. It is seen in less than 1% of inguinal hernia. It should not be confused with an appendix-containing femoral hernia, known as De Garengeot hernia. Clinical presentation Clinicall...
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Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous disease or even considered a constellation of diseases resulting in a deposition relatively similar proteins. It has many causes and can affect essentially any organ system. Epidemiology  There may be male predilection. Typically affects middle aged individuals a...
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Anal atresia

Anal atresia (or imperforate anus) refers to a spectrum of anorectal abnormalities ranging from a membranous separation to complete absence of the anus. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 5000 births. Pathology Clinically there is no anal opening. It can be broadly be classified in...
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Anal canal

The anal canal is the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract.  Gross anatomy The anal canal measures ~4 cm long and is continuous with the rectum at the anorectal junction, which is the right angle the rectum takes at levator ani (i.e. the pelvic floor).  The anal canal is a muscular tub...
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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a relatively uncommon malignancy. It accounts for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies and 1-6% of anorectal tumours (~1.5% of all gastro-intestinal tract malignancies in the Unites States 14).  Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection where its incidence has bee...
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Anal cancer staging

The accepted TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows 1: Primary tumour (T) TX: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension T3: tumour >5 ...
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Anal sphincter

The anal sphincter is divided into an internal and external anal sphincter. It surrounds the anal canal.  Gross anatomy Internal anal sphincter continuation of inner rectal muscle thickened, circular muscle fibres, up to 5 mm thick composed of visceral muscle External anal sphincter Compo...
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Angiosarcoma of spleen

An angiosarcoma of the spleen is a rare malignent splenic neoplasm. The term is usually given to describe a primary angiosarcoma of the spleen although angiosarcoma elsewhere can also rarely metastasise to the spleen.  Despite its absolute rarity, a splenic angiosarcoma is considered the most co...
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Annular pancreas

Annular pancreas is a morphological anomaly which can cause duodenal obstruction. This condition is important to recognise, because radiologists are usually the first person to diagnose such a condition. Epidemiology The incidence is probably 1 in 250, however incidence is not accurately repor...
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Anterior pararenal space

The anterior pararenal space is the portion of the retroperitoneum that lies between the posterior surface of the parietal peritoneum and the anterior reflection of the perirenal fascia. Gross anatomy It contains the duodenum, pancreas and retroperitoneal segments of the ascending and descendi...
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Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea

Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea can be broadly divided into two groups: Clostridium difficile colitis non-specific diarrhoea The former is a life threatening condition, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment whereas the later is milder and self limiting.  Both result from changes in the bo...
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Antral nipple sign

The antral nipple sign refers to redundant pyloric mucosa protruding into the gastric antrum and is seen in pyloric stenosis. See also cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric stenosis shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis
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Antral pad sign

An antral pad sign is a feature seen on a spot radiograph of the upper gastrointestinal tract obtained with orally administered contrast material. It refers to the the extrinsic impression or indentation on the postero-inferior aspect of the antrum. The impression is generally arcuate and smooth...
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Aortic hiatus

The aortic hiatus is one the three major apertures through the diaphragm and lies at the level of T12. Strictly speaking, it is not a real aperture in the diaphragm, but an osseoaponeurotic opening between it and the vertebral column.  The hiatus is situated slightly to the left of the midline ...
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Aorto-enteric fistula

Aorto-enteric fistulation is an uncommon catastrophic cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Aortic fisultas can be primary (associated with an abdominal aortic aneurysm) or secondary (associated with graft repairs).  Epidemiology The annual incidence of primary aorto-enteric fistulas is thoug...
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Aphthous ulceration

Aphthous ulcers are deep mucosal ulcers of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Pathology Aetiology infective inflammatory conditions Yersinia enterocolitis amoebic enterocolitis cytomegalovirus enterocolitis noninfective inflammatory conditions Crohn disease idiopathic granulomatous gastritis ...
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Appendiceal carcinoid

Appendiceal carcinoids are rare overall but represent the most common tumour of the appendix. The appendix is also one of the most common (but not the most common) locations for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.  Clinical presentation Appendiceal carcinoids can present as the obstructive cau...
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Appendiceal intussusception

Appendiceal intussusception happens when appendix segment is pulled into itself or into the cecum. This condition can mimic various chronic and acute abdominal conditions, with an important entity to be recognized, since it could be mistaken as a cecal mass. Epidemiology Appendiceal intussusce...
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Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma

Appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas are rare tumours of the appendix. They are considered a benign equivalent of an appendiceal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Epidemiology They may be histologically present in around 0.3% appendiceal resection specimens 3.  Clinical presentation A commonly descr...
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Appendiceal mucocoele

Appendiceal mucocoeles occur when there is abnormal accumulation of mucus within the appendix. The tenacious and viscous mucus causes obstruction of the appendiceal neck and results in dilatation of the lumen. Epidemiology The reported prevalence is at appendectomy is 0.2-0.3%. They are though...
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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition in general radiology practice and is one of the main causes of abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis. Epidemiology Acute appendicitis is typically a dis...
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Appendicitis (summary)

Appendicitis occurs when there is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition and is a major cause of abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis although its use should be limited because of the radiation dose required ...
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Appendicolith

An appendicolith is a calcified deposit within the appendix. They are present in a large number of children with acute appendicitis and may be an incidental finding on an abdominal radiograph or CT. Incidence may be increased among patients with a retrocaecal appendix. Pathology Although the c...
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Appendicular abscess

Appendicular abscess is considered the most common complication of acute appendicitis. Radiographic features Ultrasound Ultrasound is the first investigation advised to evaluate a suspected appendicular pathology. Findings of an appendicular abscess include: fluid collection (hypoechoic) in ...
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Appendicular artery

The appendicular artery is a branch of the ileal or posterior caecal branch of the ileocolic artery, which is from the superior mesenteric artery. It courses posteriorly to the terminal ileum in the free wall of the mesoappendix to supply the appendix.
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Appendix

The appendix or vermiform appendix (vermiform = worm-like) is a blind muscular tube that arises from the caecum, which is the first part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The appendix arises from the posteromedial surface of the caecum, approximately 2-3 cm inferiorly to the ileocaecal valve, ...
Article

Apple core sign - colon

The apple core sign, also known as a napkin ring sign (bowel), is most frequently associated with constriction of the lumen of the colon by a stenosing annular colorectal carcinoma. Differential diagnosis The appearance of the apple-core lesion of the colon also can be caused by other diseases...
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Apple-peel intestinal atresia

Apple-peel intestinal atresia, also known as type IIIb or Christmas tree intestinal atresia, is a rare form of small bowel atresia in which the duodenum or proximal jejunum ends in a blind pouch and the distal small bowel wraps around its vascular supply in a spiral resembling an apple peel. Oft...
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Appleby procedure

The Appleby procedure is a type of pancreatic cancer resection.  For some patients with pancreatic cancer involving the body and tail of the pancreas, involvement of the coeliac axis is a classic contraindication to pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure).  With the Appleby procedure, ther...
Article

Arc of Buhler

The arc of Buhler (AOB) is a persistent embryologic connection between the coeliac artery and superior mesenteric artery.  This arch is is independent of both the gastroduodenal and dorsal pancreatic artery. It travels vertically, ventral to the abdominal aorta.  It is present in 1-4% of indivi...
Article

Arc of Riolan

The arc of Riolan (AOR), also known as the mesenteric meandering artery (of Moskowitz) or central anastomotic mesenteric artery, is an arterio-arterial anastomosis between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Gross anatomy It is an inconstant artery that connects the proximal superio...
Article

Areae gastricae

Areae gastricae are a normal finding on double contrast images of the stomach. Radiographic features fine reticular network of barium-coated grooves between 1-5 mm islands/areas of gastric mucosa may be seen in ~70-80% of patients if there is adequate high-density barium coating of the stomac...
Article

Arrowhead sign

The arrowhead sign refers to the focal caecal thickening centered on the appendiceal orifice, seen as a secondary sign in acute appendicitis. The contrast material in the cecal lumen assumes an arrowhead configuration, pointing at the appendix.   The arrowhead sign is applicable only when enter...
Article

Asbestos related diseases

Asbestos related disease, in particular affecting the lung, comprise of a broad spectrum of entities related to the inhalational exposure to asbestos fibres. They can be divided into benign and malignant changes 1-3. Benign pleural and parenchymal lung disease asbestos related benign pleural d...
Article

Ascariasis

Ascariasis is due to infection with the Ascaris lumbricoides adult worm, and typically presents with gastrointestinal or pulmonary symptoms, depending on the stage of development.   Epidemiology Ascaris lumbricoides is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and in other humid a...
Article

Ascending colon

The ascending colon is the second part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The ascending colon is the continuation of the caecum superior to the ileocaecal valve. It is secondarily retroperitoneal, although it its own mesentery in approximately 25% of patients and is 15cm in length 1,2. The asc...
Article

Ascites

Ascites is defined as an abnormal amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Clinical presentation Patients with large volume of ascites can present with abdominal distension (which may be painful), nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and peripheral oedema 7, 9. Pathology Ascitic fluid is traditionally charact...
Article

Asplenia

Asplenia refers to absence of the spleen thereby leading to deficient splenic function. Epidemiology Seen in 3% of neonates with structural heart disease and in 30% of patients who die from cardiac malposition. The male-to-female ratio is 2:1. Pathology Asplenia can be classified into two  t...
Article

Assessing NG tube position (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists NG tube placement is commonly assessed using a chest radiograph although local protocol may dictate that pH assessment of NG aspirate be used in the first instance to confirm position of the NG tube. There are recognised l...
Article

Atrio-oesophageal fistula

Atrial-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, dysphagia or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of atrial-...
Article

Atrophic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis is a chronic condition of autoimmune and non-autoimmune aetiology.  Pathology Two types of atrophic gastritis have been described 1-3: type A: autoimmune gastric body and fundus atrophy secondary to antiparietal cell antibodies decreased secretion of acid and intrinsic fa...
Article

Autoimmune pancreatitis

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis associated with autoimmune manifestations on clinical, histological, and laboratory grounds 1. Distinguishing this entity from other forms of chronic pancreatitis (such as alcohol-induced) is important as steroid treatment is effec...
Article

Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
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AXR (summary approach)

Abdominal radiographs can be challenging examinations to look at. It is always best to approach radiographs in a systematic way. Bowel gas pattern Gas within the bowel forms a natural contrast with surrounding tissues since it has a very low density. Bowel can only be seen if it contains air/g...

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