Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

100 results found
Article

Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle is an inflammatory/granulomatous response to deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the tendons of the longus colli muscle. Clinical presentation  Patients can present with debilitating symptoms that are unrelated to the degree of calcif...
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Calcification of the globe

Numerous causes of calcification of the globe are encountered, varying from the benign to malignant. When calcification is seen of the posterior half of the globe, it could relate to any of the layers (scleral, choroidal or retinal), as it is not possible to separate them out on CT. Retinal dr...
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Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, also known as a Pindborg tumour, is typically located in the premolar and molar region of the mandible, although up to a third are found in the maxilla. Epidemiology Usually they are seen in the 4th to 6th decades. They are rare tumours. Pathology As...
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Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Caldwell view (angled skull PA view)

The Caldwell view is a caudally angled PA radiograph of the skull, designed to better visualize the paranasal sinuses, especially the frontal sinus. Patient position the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector petrous ridge is below orbits image size: 24 x 30 cm X-ray beam f...
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Capillary haemangioma of the orbit

Capillary haemangiomas of the orbit, also known as strawberry haemangiomas, on account of its colouring, or orbital infantile haemangiomas, are the most common orbital tumours of infancy, and unlike orbital cavernous haemangiomas, they are neoplasms rather than vascular malformations. Clinical ...
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Capp triad

The Capp triad refers to the constellation of clinical and imaging findings in patients with spontaneous retropharyngeal haematomas, and consists of: tracheal and oesophageal compression anterior displacement of the trachea subcutaneous bruising over the neck and anterior chest
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Carcinogens

Carcinogens are substances known to cause cancer. They include: Brain vinyl chloride Nasopharynx / nasal passage nickel wood dust chromium Thyroid ionising radiation (not technically a substance) Skin arsenic coal tars polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) Lungs arsenic asbestos chloro...
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Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is the most common of three malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands, and are thought to arise from pre-existing pleomorphic adenomas (or benign mixed tumours) 1. Epidemiology These tumours usually occur in older patients (6th to 8th decade), who have had a p...
Article

Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
Article

Carina

The carina is part of the trachea and is an important reference point in chest imaging. Gross anatomy The carina is found at the base of the trachea and it is formed as the main bronchi divide into right and left branches. The carina usually sits in the T4/T5 plane and is at the level of the ...
Article

Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different aetiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as suc...
Article

Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the external ca...
Article

Carotid bifurcation

The carotid bifurcation is the point at which the common carotid artery terminates. As it does so, it forms the internal and external carotid arteries which go on to supply the head and neck. It is closely related anatomically to the carotid body, a small group of chemoreceptors and supporting ...
Article

Carotid body

The carotid body is located within the neck, and in close proximity to the carotid bifurcation. It is composed of a number of chemoreceptor cells and supporting matrix and detects changes in the composition of blood in the common carotid as it forms the internal and external carotid arteries. I...
Article

Carotid body tumour

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, is a highly vascular glomus tumour that arises from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. It is located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA.  Epidemiology Typically, ca...
Article

Carotid canal

The carotid canal is a passage within the petrous temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery and sympathetic plexus. Its inferior opening is called the carotid foramen and is situated anteriorly to the jugular fossa and medially to the tympanic plate. The carotid canal is initially ...
Article

Carotid space

The carotid space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy The carotid space is a roughly cylindrical space that extends from the skull base through to the aortic arch.  It is circumscribed by all three layers of the deep cervical fascia, forming the carotid sh...
Article

Carotidynia

Carotidynia or (Fay syndrome) is a rare syndrome characterised by neck pain in the region of the carotid bifurcation. There is confusion in the literature as to what this term actually refers to, with some authors suggesting that the term should be reserved for a pain syndrome with no structural...
Article

Castleman disease

Castleman disease (CD), also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct ...
Article

Cataract

Cataract is an opacification or thickening of the lens and is the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity. The diagnosis is made clinically. Pathology Aetiology Common causes include: old age (most co...
Article

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology CST is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the least common dural venou...
Article

Cebocephaly

Cebocephaly refers to a type of rare midline craniofacial anomaly where there is a single nostril (which usually ends blindly 6-7) with proboscis-like nose 8 and hypotelorism. Pathology Associations holoprosencephaly: particularly alobar holoprosencephaly trisomy 13 See also ethmocephaly ...
Article

Cemento-osseous dysplasia

Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) is a benign condition that can affect jaw. They may arise from the fibroblasts of the periodontal ligaments. Three types have been described periapical cemental dysplasia focal cemento-osseous dysplasia florid cemento-osseous dysplasia See also 2005 WHO his...
Article

Cemento-ossifying fibroma

Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm that usually arises from the mandible and maxilla. They most often arise from the tooth bearing areas of these bones. Terminology In the 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic fibromas this tumour is referred as "ossif...
Article

Cementoblastoma

Cementoblastoma is one of many mandibular lesions is a rare tumour of the cementum, with only approximately 100 cases reported. Key to diagnosis both radiologically and histologically is attachment to the tooth root.  Terminology Cementoblastomas have been previously described in the literatur...
Article

Cervical lymph node groups

Cervical lymph node groups describe the anatomic position of the nodes. It differs from cervical lymph node levels, covering all lymph nodes not just those relevant to head and neck surgery.  Gross anatomy Groups described in the literature include but are not limited to:  facial group parot...
Article

Cervical lymph node staging

Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. TNM nodal staging Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
Article

Cervical plexus

The cervical plexus is formed by the ventral (anterior) rami of the C1 to C5 nerve roots and innervates the diaphragm, provides motor supply to some neck muscles and cutaneous sensation to the skin of the head, neck and chest. Gross anatomy Roots anterior rami of C1 to C5 nerves Course runs...
Article

Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognise basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modifica...
Article

Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...
Article

Cherubism

Cherubism has historically been considered a variant of fibrous dysplasia, but in reality is likely a distinct entity.  Epidemiology Cherubism is inherited as an autosomal dominant 2 disorder of variable penetrance, with onset in early childhood (typically in the 3-4 years of age). Interesting...
Article

Choanal atresia

Choanal atresia refers to a lack of formation of the choanal openings. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Epidemiology It frequently presents in neonates where it is one of the commonest causes of nasal obstruction in this age group. There is a recognised female predilection. The incidence is ...
Article

Cholesteatoma

Cholesteatoma is histologically equivalent to a epidermoid cyst and is composed of desquamated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium forming a mass. They usually present with conductive hearing loss. Pathology The mass is lined by epithelium (facing inwards) which continues to grow, ther...
Article

Chondrosarcoma of the base of skull

Chondrosarcomas of the base of skull are rare compared with other base of skull tumours, but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of skull make up only a small fraction ...
Article

Chorda tympani

Chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of tongue via the lingual nerve as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. Gross anat...
Article

Chorioretinal lacunae

Chorioretinal lacunae refer to punched out lesions in pigmented layer of retina, usually around the optic disc. It is a considered a consistent feature of Aicardi syndrome.
Article

Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
Article

Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment is a detachment of the choroid from the underlying sclera due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and occurs in some settings: transudative: trauma exudative: fluid accumulating in the suprachoroidal space secondary to many causes, most commonly inflammation (e.g. uve...
Article

Choroidal effusion

A choroidal effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the supra-choroidal space (between the choroid and sclera). It differs from a retinal detachment in its clinical presentation and radiologic appearance. Choroidal effusions can be associated with : ocular hypotony : small globe with a charact...
Article

Choroidal osteoma

Choroidal osteomas are rare benign calcific masses of the globe.  Epidemiology Choroidal osteomas are typically found in young Caucasian women 1. A number of familial cases have been reported 3.  Clinical presentation These lesions are usually unilateral (75%), and result in painless and gra...
Article

Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis

Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis (CIFS) is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis.  Clinical presentation The condition has a more prolonged course than acute invasive fungal sinusitis, usually more than 12 weeks 5. Patients are usually immunocompetent or have a milder level of immunocompromise....
Article

Chronic otomastoiditis

Chronic otomastoiditis (COM) should be considered a separate entity from acute otomastoiditis, and is defined as persistent or recurrent inflammation of the middle ear and mastoid, lasting usually for a minimum of 12 weeks, and resulting in permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane. Pathol...
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Chronic otomastoiditis with ossicular erosions

Chronic otomastoiditis with ossicular erosions (aka) non cholesteatomatous ossicular erosion or post inflammatory ossicular erosions is defined by the erosive changes involving the ossicles in the absence of cholesteatoma in patient with history of chronic otomastoiditis. Radiographic features ...
Article

Chronic otomastoiditis with tympanosclerosis

Chronic otomastoiditis with tympanosclerosis represents calcific or bony middle ear foci secondary to suppurative chronic otomastoiditis. Radiographic features Common locations of calcifications include: tympanic membrane ossicle surface stapes footplate muscle tendons ossicle ligaments ...
Article

Chronic sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis refers to ongoing long term sinus infection-inflammation that often develops secondary to a prolonged/refractory acute sinus infection. Epidemiology It most commonly affects young to middle-aged adults but can uncommonly affect children. Pathology Aetiology deviated nasal ...
Article

Chvostek sign

Chvostek sign is the facial twitch obtained by tapping the distribution of the facial nerve in front of the tragus. It is caused by mechanical irritability of peripheral nerves. It is indicative of hypocalcemia and is the most reliable test for hypocalcemia.
Article

Cirsoid aneurysm

Cirsoid aneurysms are rare arteriovenous malformations of the scalp and extremities.  Clinical presentation Patients often present with a slow-growing pulsatile mass and may also experience bleeding, tinnitus and/or a headache 3.  Pathology Cirsoid aneurysms develop due to an abnormal arteri...
Article

Classification of antrochoanal polyps

CT is the modality of choice for assessment of antrochoanal polyps. A classification system has been proposed:  Stage I : strictly an antronasal polyp Stage II : if the polyp extends to the nasopharynx and the accessory ostium of the maxillary sinus is occluded fully by the neck of the ACP St...
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Cleft palate

Cleft palate is a type of facial cleft. It can occur in two main aetiologically different forms: in association with a cleft lip: cleft lip +/- palate (much commoner) on its own: isolated cleft palate (rarer)
Article

Clival masses

The differential of a mass involving or arising from the clivus is a relatively narrow one and can be divided into whether the lesion arises from the skull base itself, from the intracranial compartment or from below the base of skull.   When evaluating the clivus it is important to compare the...
Article

Cloverleaf skull

A cloverleaf skull (also known as kleeblattschädel) refers to type of severe craniosynostosis which gives the skull a cloverleaf shape. It typically results from intrauterine premature closure of sagittal, coronal and lambdoid sutures. Pathology Associations thanatophoric dysplasia: classical...
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Coalescent mastoiditis

Coalescent mastoiditis is simply the term given to acute otomastoiditis when mucoperiosteal disease extends to involve the bone. The septae which normally separate one mastoid air cell from another are resorbed. This change is only easily appreciated on thin section bone-algorithm through the te...
Article

Coca-Cola bottle sign

The coca-cola bottle sign refers to the appearance of the muscles of the orbit in thyroid eye disease.  The belly of the muscle enlarges with sparing of the tendinous insertion, giving the appearance of the traditional coca-cola bottle. The enlargement of the muscles follows the I'M SLOW format...
Article

Cochlea

The cochlea is part of the inner ear osseous labyrinth found in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy The cochlea is a shell-shaped spiral that turns between two-and-a-half and two-and-three-quarters times around the modiolus (a central column of bone).  Communications cochlear aperture:...
Article

Cochlear anomalies (classification)

Cochlear anomalies are variety of congenital anomalies which, depending on the exact time at which an insult occurs during embryogenesis, may have different manifestations. Terminology is often used imprecisely leading to confusion not only among clinicians but also in the literature. Classific...
Article

Cochlear aplasia

Cochlear aplasia, or complete absence of the cochlea is a rare anomaly which accounts for only 3% of cochlear malformations.1 Radiographic features complete absence of the cochlea. Dense otic bone is seen at the anatomical site of the cochlea 2 cochlear nerve canal and cochlear nerve are abse...
Article

Cochlear hypoplasia

Cochlear hypoplasia is defined by small underdeveloped cochlea <2 turns. Radiographic features a small cochlear bud of variable length (usually 1–3 mm).  It has only one turn or a partial turn is seen cochlear nerve often hypoplastic or absent cochlear nerve canal: absent, narrow or norma...
Article

Cochlear implant

Cochlear implants (CI) are a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike conventional hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound, but works by directly stimulating any functioning audi...
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Cochlear promontory

The cochlear promontory is the name given to the bone that overlies the basal turn of the cochlea protruding into the middle ear cavity.  Related pathology glomus tympanicum paragangliomas typically arise in the region of the cochlear promonotory
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Cogan syndrome

Cogan syndrome is a rare vasculitis of children and young adults which primarily characterized by 1,4,6: inflammatory eye disease (ocular keratitis, uveitis, scleritis, optic neuritis) 6 audiovestibular symptoms (similar to Meniere disease) 6 However, it can potentially affect a multitude of ...
Article

Collet-Sicard syndrome

Collet-Sicard syndrome is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to a lesion at the jugular foramen such as a glomus jugulare tumour or schwannoma. It consists of : Vernet syndrome, consisting of motor paralysis of glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) vagus nerve (CN X) accessory nerve (CN X...
Article

Colliscalene triangle

The colliscalene triangle is an important anatomical region of the neck, situated medial to the scalenus anterior muscle. Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: lateral border of longus colli lateral: medial border of scalenus anterior inferior: first part of the subclavian artery apex: carotid ...
Article

Colloid nodule (thyroid)

Colloid nodules (CN) are non-neoplastic benign nodules occurring within the thyroid gland. They form the vast majority of nodular thyroid disease. Pathology Colloid nodules are composed of irregularly enlarged follicles containing abundant colloid. Some colloid nodules can be cystic (cystic co...
Article

Coloboma

Coloboma is collective term encompassing any focal discontinuity in the structure of the eye, and should not be confused with staphylomas, which are due to choroidal thinning.  Pathology Most commonly colobomas are due to failure of closure of the choroidal fissure posteriorly. Typically colob...
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Common carotid artery

The common carotid artery is a paired structure that supplies blood to the head and neck.  Summary origin: branch of the aorta (left) and brachiocephalic trunk (right) course: posterior to sternoclavicular joint, lateral to thyroid and trachea supply: head and neck main branches: none (usua...
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Common cavity malformation

Common cavity malformation is defined by the absence of the normal differentiation between the cochlea and vestibule replaced by cystic structure. It accounts for about 25% of cochlear malformations 1.  Radiographic features confluence of the cochlea, vestibule and horizontal SCC in a cystic c...
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Common variable immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, and is characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections. Clinical presentation The commonest presentation is t...
Article

Complex midfacial fracture

Complex midfacial fractures consist of multiple facial fractures that cannot be classified as any of the known complex facial fracture (e.g. Le Fort, zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, naso-orbital-ethmoid fracture).
Article

Concha bullosa

Concha bullosa (also known as a middle turbinate pneumatisation) is a common finding and although associated with deviation of the nasal septum, it is usually of little clinical importance. Epidemiology Concha bullosa is a normal variant and is one of the most common variations of sinonasal an...
Article

Conductive hearing loss

Conductive hearing loss is caused by a range of developmental, congenital or acquired pathology to the external, middle or inner ear. Pathology Essentially any process that obstructs or disrupts the passage of sound waves through the outer or middle ear can cause conductive hearing loss and th...
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Condylar canal

The condylar canal (canalis condylaris) is located in the condylar fossa, posterior to the occipital condyles. It transmits the emissary veins which originate at the sigmoid sinus and drain into the occipital vein. The condylar canaI has a variable presence and seen only in ~55% (range 50-60%) ...
Article

Condylar process fractures

Condylar process fractures are fractures of the condylar process of the mandible. The condylar process of the mandible is involved in around 30% of all mandibular fractures. Condylar fractures are classified according to the location of the fracture and the direction displacement of the condyle...
Article

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare anomaly that occurs in less than 0.01% of the population. It encompasses agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia 1. The most common type of collateral flow is through the circle of Willis, through the anterior communicating artery (ACO...
Article

Congenital calvarial defects

Congenital calvarial defects are a group of disorders characterized by congenital calvarial bony defects which vary in severity. Radiographic features CT with 3D shaded surface reformats is the best imaging tool as it demonstrates calvarial defects and bone margins. parietal foramina parieta...
Article

Congenital cataract

Congenital cataracts are a major cause of blindness with early detection the most important factor in reducing impact on future vision.  Epidemiology Incidence is ~3 per 100,000 in the United Kingdom 1. Will be higher in areas with increased rates of congenital infection 5. Risk factors low ...
Article

Congenital cervical teratoma

Congenital cervical teratoma refers to a teratoma arising in the cervical region. They are thought to account for ~3% of teratomas in childhood/infancy 3. Epidemiology The estimated occurrence in neonates is ~1:20,000-40,000 live births 8. Clinical presentation Most tumours are diagnosed at ...
Article

Congenital cholesteatoma

Congenital cholesteatomas are identical to epidermoid cysts, differing only in name and location.  Pathology They are intraosseous inclusions of ectoderm, and are therefore comprised of keratin debris and cholesterol. Characteristically, they are located at the petrous apex. In contrast middle...
Article

Congenital granular cell myoblastoma

A congenital granular cell myoblastoma (also known as congenital epulis) is a very rare benign tumour which classically presents in the fetal-neonatal population. Epidemiology It occurs almost exclusively in females when it presents in the fetal neonatal population although no such predilectio...
Article

Congenital hypopituitarism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypopituitarism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 P's of cretinism Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue
Article

Congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT), previously known as cretinism, can be of thyroidal or central (hypothalamic/pituitary) origin and can have a widely diverse molecular aetiology. Clinical presentation Most children are asymptomatic birth, and are diagnosed after screening. In untreated CHT pati...
Article

Congenital ossicular anomalies

Congenital anomalies of the ossicles are most frequently associated with external ear abnormalities also, although they can occur in isolation.  They cause conductive hearing loss (CHL). When bilateral they are most frequently genetic, with autosomal dominant inheritance, whereas unilater...
Article

Convexal subarachnoid haemorrhage

Convexal subarachnoid haemorrhages (SAH) are nontraumatic intracranial haemorrhages that occur within the surface sulci of the brain (c.f. basal cisternal distribution of aneurysmal SAH). There are various causes of convexal SAH, some of which include: dural venous sinus thromboses cortical v...
Article

Convoluted cerebriform pattern

A convoluted cerebriform pattern is a term used to denote the appearance of an sinonasal inverted papilloma on MRI. The appearance is seen on both T2 and post contrast T1 images and appears as alternating roughly parallel lines of high and low signal intensity. This sign has been reported as p...
Article

Coronal suture

The coronal suture is the cranial suture formed between the two parietal bones and the frontal bone. At the junction of coronal, sagittal and frontal sutures is the anterior fontanelle which is open at birth and usually fuses at around 18-24 months after birth. Fusion of the coronal suture occu...
Article

Cranial gun shot injuries

Cranial gun shot injuries are a form of penetrating traumatic brain injuries, which are much less common than blunt traumatic brain injuries.  Radiographic features Please see the main article "imaging of gun shot injuries" for a general description of imaging features.  CT The ent...
Article

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is one of four types of fibrous dysplasia and is characterised, as the name suggests, by involvement of the skull and facial bones. For a general discussion of the underlying pathology, refer to the parent article fibrous dysplasia. Terminology Although leontias...
Article

Craniotomy

Craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a piece of calvarial bone is removed to allow intracranial exposure. The bone flap is replaced at the end of the procedure, usually secured with microplates and screws. If the bone flap is not replaced it is either a craniectomy or cranioplasty.  Classif...
Article

Cribriform plate

The cribriform plate is a sieve-like structure between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal cavity. It is a part of ethmoid bone and supports the olfactory bulb. It is perforated by foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerves and the nerves to the upper part of the nasal septum, the lat...
Article

Cricoid cartilage

The cricoid cartilage is a ring shaped structure that sits just below the thyroid cartilage. It is the only complete cartilaginous ring of the whole airway. Gross Anatomy The anterior portion is called the arch and the posterior quadrangular shaped portion is the lamina. It articulates with th...
Article

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm is also known as cricopharyngeal achalasia, although some authors distinguish between these entities, and may present as a cause of dysphagia. Terminology There is confusing use of the terms cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia and cricopharyngea...
Article

Crista galli

The crista galli is a thick, midline, smooth triangular process arising from the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, projecting into the anterior cranial fossa. It separates the olfactory bulbs, which lie either side of it in the olfactory fossae of the cribriform plate. It serves as an anteri...

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