Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

88 results found
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MacEwen triangle

The MacEwen triangle (also called the suprameatal triangle or mastoid fossa) is a small triangular depression affecting the inner table of the temporal bone. The lines forming the triangle are: anterior: posterior border of the external acoustic meatus superior: posterior root of the zygomati...
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Macrophthalmia

The increased globe size or macrophthalmia may have many differentials: buphthalmos (congenital glaucoma) axial myopia macrophthalmus in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Focal enlargement: staphyloma coloboma  
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Madelung disease

Madelung disease is a rare benign entity (lipomatosis) clinically characterised by the presence of multiple and symmetric, non-encapsulated masses of fatty tissue, usually involving the neck and the upper region of the trunk. It should not be confused with the Madelung deformity of the wrist.  ...
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Major salivary glands

The major salivary glands are the largest and most important of the salivary glands and comprise of: paired parotid glands paired submandibular glands paired sublingual glands Related pathology salivary gland tumours
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Malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands

Malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands, according to the WHO classification, comprise three tumours: carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma arises from pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma most common carcinosarcoma (true mixed tumour of the salivary glands) true malignant mixed tumour 99% also ...
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Malleus

The malleus is the lateral most middle ear ossicle, located between the tympanic membrane and the incus. Gross anatomy The malleus has a head, neck, and three distinct processes (manubrium (handle), anterior and lateral processes). The head is oval in shape, and articulates posteriorly with t...
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Mandible

The mandible consists of a curved, horizontal portion, the body, and two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles (angle of the jaw). It articulates with both temporal bones at the mandibular fossa at the temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Oste...
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Mandibular canal

Mandibular canal is located within the mandible and contains the inferior alveolar nerve, artery and the vein. It starts at the mandibular foramen, on the lingual side of the ramus, continues on buccal surface of body of the mandible and ends at the mental foramen, adjacent to the second premolar.
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Mandibular foramen

Mandibular foramen Is located on medial surface of ramus of the mandible. It transmits inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve that supplies all teeth up till the midline.
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Mandibular fossa

The mandibular fossa is the smooth concave articular surface formed by both the squamous and petrous parts of the temporal bone. It is a part of temporomandibular joint and lodges the condyle of mandible.
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Mandibular fracture

Mandibular fractures are relatively common especially among young men. Although traditionally the mandible and base of skull are thought to form a complete bony ring, interrupted only by the TMJs. This should mean that the mandible should fracture in two places (akin to the bony pelvis) making s...
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Mandibular lesions

Mandibular lesions are myriad and common. The presence of teeth results in lesions that are specific to the mandible (and maxilla) and a useful classification that defines them as odontogenic or non-odontogenic. While it may often not be possible to make a diagnosis on imaging alone, this classi...
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Mandibular osteoradionecrosis

Mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is more common after radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies due to the superficial position of mandible, which makes it exposed to high radiation. The maxilla can also be involved, but this is less frequent.  Epidemiology Mandibular ORN may occur i...
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Mandibular periostitis

There are many causes for mandibular periostitis: Langerhans cell histiocytosis malignancy (both primary and metastatic) necrosis, e.g. radiation osteonecrosis osteomyelitis pyogenic Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis actinomycosis (uncommon) syphilis (uncommon) tuberculosis (uncommon) r...
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Mandibular tori

Mandibular tori are common benign outgrowths of bone from the inner surface of the mandible.  They are composed of compact bone, densely mineralized usually without medullary cavity, and arise from the inner surface of the mandible above the origin of mylohyoid. They are usually bilateral. See...
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Marine Lenhart syndrome

Marine-Lenhart syndrome refers to a variant of Graves' disease where there are coexistent autonomous thyroid nodules. It is better described as Graves' disease with coexistent with multinodular goiter or nodular Graves' disease 1, as most authors consider it a distinct sub-entity of Graves’ .  ...
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Marjolin ulcer

Marjolin ulcers reflect malignant degeneration within pre-existing scars or areas of chronic inflammation such as burns, venous ulcers, etc.  
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Markowitz and Manson classification system of naso-orbitoethmoid fractures

The Markowitz and Manson classification system categorises fractures of the naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex as follows 1: type I - in which the medial canthal tendon is intact and connected to a single large fracture fragment type II - the fracture is comminuted, and the medial canthal tendon...
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Masseteric artery

The masseteric artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle. It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the...
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Masticator space

The masticator space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy  The masticator space are paired suprahyoid cervical spaces on each side of the face. Each space is enveloped by the superficial (investing) layer of the deep cervical fascia. The superficial layer ...
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Mastoid air cells

The mastoid air cells (cellulae mastoidae) represent the pneumatisation of the mastoid part of the temporal bone and are of variable size and extent.  Gross anatomy At the superior and anterior part of the mastoid process the air cells are large and irregular and contain air, but toward the in...
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Mastoid foramen

The mastoid foramen is a variably present foramen as well as being variable in its size, number and position. Most commonly, it is located near the posterior margin of the mastoid process, within the temporo-occipital suture. It transmits the emissary veins connecting to the sigmoid sinus and a...
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Mastoid part of temporal bone

The mastoid part of the temporal bone is its posterior component. Gross anatomy The mastoid part is normally pneumatised by the mastoid air cells and is perforated by the the mastoid foramen.  The mastoid part has an outer rough surface that provides attachment to occipitalis and auricularis ...
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Mastoidectomy

Mastoidectomy is a fairly frequent procedure performed for a variety of temporal bone pathologies including mastoiditis and cholesteatoma. It involves removing part of the bony wall of the mastoid to aid in drainage and/or surgical excision. Types of mastoidectomy A number of procedures have b...
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Maxillary antral carcinoma

Maxillary antral carcinomas are an uncommon head and neck malignancy. They usually present late despite growing large since it remains confined within the maxillary sinus and produces no symptoms. Epidemiology Most commonly affects patients aged over 45 years and has a strong male predilection...
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Maxillary artery

The (internal) maxillary artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.  Origin and course The maxillary artery's origin is behind the neck of the mandible, and is at first imbedded in the substance of the parotid gland. From there it passes forward between t...
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Maxillary artery branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is: DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous Mnemonic D: deep auricular artery A: anterior tympanic artery M: middle meningeal artery I: inferior alveolar artery A: accessory meningeal ar...
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Maxillary line

The maxillary line is a mucosal projection along the lateral nasal wall corresponding to lacrimomaxillary suture externally. The midportion of the line is called "M point". During endoscopic sinus and orbital procedures the maxillary line and M-point are very important and useful landm...
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Maxillary sinus

The maxillary sinus is a pyramid-shaped paranasal sinus which drains into the middle meatus of the nose. It is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is present at birth and it develops until around the age of 14 years. Related pathology retention cysts silent sinus syndrome inverted papil...
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Maxillary tori

Maxillary tori are analogous to mandibular tori, and are composed of densely mineralised bone usually devoid of medullary cavity. Unlike in the mandible, where they arise on the inner surface, when arising from the maxilla they may project both inwards (in which case they arise from the midline ...
Article

McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS)

The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS) is a scoring system developed to estimate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.1 Scoring system The MTNS is based on 22 parameters: eight clinical or laboratory parameters: gender (male): 1 point age (>45 years old): 1 point palpable nodule (p...
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McRae line

McRae line is a radiographic line drawn on a lateral skull radiograph or midsagittal section of CT or MRI, joining the basion and opisthion. Normal position of the tip of dens is 5mm below this line. If the tip of the dens migrates above this line it indicates the presence of basilar invaginati...
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Medial canal fibrosis

Medial canal fibrosis is characterised by fibrous tissue formation in the medial part of the bony external auditory canal. Clinical presentation  Patients can present with conductive hearing loss, otorrhea and/or a history of chronic otitis. Radiographic features Early stage thickened tympa...
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Medial rectus muscle

The medial rectus muscle is one of the 6 extraocular muscles that control eye movements.  Summary innervation: inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) origin: Annulus of Zinn (tendinous ring) insertion: globe (anterior, medial surface) primary function: one of three ocular adductor...
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Medial wall of the orbit (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the bones forming the medial wall of the orbit is: My Little Eye Sits (in the orbit) Mnemonic M: maxilla (frontal process) L: lacrimal E: ethmoid S: sphenoid (body)
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A AA alleged assault anaplastic astrocytoma AAA: abdominal aortic aneurysm AAC: adenocystic carcinoma AARF: atlantoaxial ro...
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Medical devices in the neck

Medical devices in the neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film and CT reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck onto the chest and stomach. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) central venous catheters ...
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Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) describes the bony destruction of the jaw with exposed bone present for greater than eight weeks in the presence of current or previous antiresorptive and/or antiangiogenic medication use, and in the absence of radiation therapy to the head and...
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Medullary thyroid cancer

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a subtype of thyroid cancer which accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid malignancies. It occurs both sporadically (80%) and as a familial form. Epidemiology In nonfamilial cases it typically peaks in the 3rd to 4th decades. Pathology Thought to arise from par...
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Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare pigmented tumour that primarily affects the calvarium or facial skeleton of children, typically during infancy. It is usually a benign tumour, albeit locally aggressive. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed during infancy, usually w...
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Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS), also known as cheilitis granulomatosa or Miescher-Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome, is a rare condition of unknown aetiology characterised by: granulomatous inflammation of the face and lips (non-caseating) facial nerve (CN VII) paralysis (involvement of crani...
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Ménière disease

Ménière disease (or idiopathic endolyphatic hydrops) is an inner ear disorder and as such can affect balance and hearing. Clinical Presentation One or both ears can be affected. The chief symptoms are: vertigo (often attacks which can be incapacitating) hearing loss tinnitus sensation of f...
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Mental artery

The mental artery is a terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery which itself is a branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. It emerges onto the face from the mandibular canal at the mental foramen, and supplies muscles and skin in the chin region. The mental artery anastomoses wit...
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Mental foramen

The mental foramen is present on the anterior surface of the mandible, adjacent to root of the mandibular second premolar. The mental nerve, a branch of inferior alveolar nerve passes through it and supplies the chin, lower lip and buccal mucosa of incisors, canines and the premolars.
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Mesiodens

A mesiodens is the most common supernumerary tooth and is located in the palatal midline between the two maxillary central incisors. Epidemiology It is rare with an estimated prevalence of ~1% (range 0.09 to 2.2%) 3. There is an increased male predilection with a M F ratio of ~2.5:1. There is...
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Metastases to the thyroid

Metastases to the thyroid are an uncommon cause of thyroid malignancy.  Epidemiology Metastases to the thyroid represent 1.4-3% of all malignancies 5. In autopsy series, the incidence is ~10% (range 2-24%) 1,5.  Pathology The most common sites of primary malignancy include (note these will v...
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Meth mouth

Meth mouth is the name given to the overt dental disease that is one of the signs of methamphetamine use. Clinical presentation Clinical examination often reveals blackened, stained, rotting or crumbling teeth. Serial studies only a few years apart may show a striking deterioration in the pati...
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Metopic suture

The metopic suture (also known as the median frontal suture) is a type of calvarial suture. It is often associated with frontal sinus agenesis or hypoplasia 7.  Gross anatomy This suture runs through the midline across the frontal bone from the nasion to the bregma, although it may often be in...
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MIBG

MIBG scan is a scintigraphic study that uses metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled to Iodine-123 or Iodine-131. It is indicated in the investigation of phaeochromocytoma. MIBG is positive in: neuroblastoma olfactory neuroblastoma 1 carcinoid tumour 4 paraganglioma phaeochromocytoma medullary th...
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Michel aplasia

Michel aplasia, also known as complete labyrinthine aplasia (CLA), is a congenital abnormality of the inner ear and is characterised by bilateral absence of differentiated inner ear structures with resultant anacusis. It should not be confused with Michel dysplasia.  Pathology Michel aplasia i...
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Microgenia

Microgenia is a term meaning a small chin. It is somewhat related to but let distinct from the term micrognathia which means a small mandible. Pathology Associations Microgenia can be isolated or be associated with a numer of anomalies which include camptomelic dysplasia 1 Hydrolethalus No...
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Microphthalmia

Microphthalmia essentially means small eyes. It is characterised by a small eye within a small orbit. It can be unilateral or bilateral. It is sometimes defined as a globe with a total axial length (TAL) that is at least two standard deviations below the mean for age. Pathology Microphthalmia ...
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Microtia

Microtia refers to a small pinna of the ear, when is it completely absent it is termed anotia. Epidemiology The estimated incidence at around 1:9000 live births. It is more common in males and there is a recognised right sided predilection. Pathology Associations Microtia can be associated ...
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Mid facial hypoplasia

Mid facial hypoplasia is a type of congenital facial anomaly and can be feature of a number of congenital syndromic anomalies. These include: Antley-Bixler syndrome chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome 2 chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Crouzon syndrome fetal alcohol syndrome fetal valproate ...
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Middle cranial fossa

The middle cranial fossa is a butterfly-shaped depression of the skull base, which is narrow in the middle and wider laterally. It houses the temporal lobes of the cerebrum. Gross anatomy The middle cranial fossa can be divided into medial and lateral parts. In the medial part, the following s...
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Middle ear

The middle ear (or tympanic cavity) is an-air filled chamber in the petrous part of the temporal bone that is split into two parts: the tympanic cavity proper (the space directly internal to the tympanic membrane) and the epitympanic recess or attic (the space superior to the membrane). It sits ...
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Middle ear effusion

Middle ear effusions are frequent in children due to prominent adenoids and horizontal Eustachian tubes. These do not require imaging, and can be treated expectantly / medically / surgically with gromits. Eustachian tube dysfunction is the accepted aetiology, with resorption of air and extravasa...
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Middle ear granulation tissue

Development of granulation tissue in the middle ear cavity is a generalised response to injury/inflammation, chronic otomastoiditis. It can either be typical or go down the pathway of becoming a cholesterol granuloma. Radiographic features Typical granulation tissue is common, more so than cho...
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Middle ear ossicles

There are three ossicles (from lateral to medial): malleus incus stapes Their role is to mechanically amplify the vibrations of the tympanic membrane and transmit them to the cochlea where they can be interpreted as sound. They are located in the middle ear cavity and articulate with each ot...
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Middle ear tumours

There are a range of middle ear tumours, which are more likely to be benign than malignant.  Pathology The three most common middle ear tumours are (not in any particular order as there are differences in the literature) 1-3:  glomus tympanicum paraganglioma congenital cholesteatoma middle ...
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Middle meningeal artery

The middle meningeal artery branches off the first part of the maxillary artery. It passes vertically through the roots of the auricotemporal nerve and enters the middle cranial fossa via the foramen spinosum. Here it gives off two branches - superior tympanic branch and ganglionic branch - befo...
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Middle nasal concha

The middle nasal concha is one of the conchae in the nose. It consists of the medial surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid which is a thin lamella that descends from the under surface of the cribriform plate, and ends in a free, convoluted margin. It is rough, and marked above by numerous grooves...
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Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle

The middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle is one of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Summary origin: cricoid and thyroid cartilage insertion: pharyngeal raphe artery: pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery, tonsillar branch of the facial artery nerve: external laryngeal bran...
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Midline nasal region lesions

A variety of congenital midface anomalies occur in children. Although rare, these disorders are clinically important because of their potential for connection to the central nervous system. Lesions presenting as a midline nasal mass include: nasal glioma nasal encephalocele nasal dermoid cyst...
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Midline neck mass

Midline neck masses have a relatively narrow differential, as few structures are present in the midline. Dividing the causes according to structure of origin is a useful schema. lymph node(s): Delphian node(s) inflammatory adenopathy malignancy thyroid gland thyroglossal duct cyst thyroid ...
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Mikulicz syndrome

Mikulicz syndrome was considered a form of Sjögren syndrome (type 1) however more recently it is considered in IgG4 related disease spectrum.  It is a non-specific inflammatory enlargement of at least two or more of the salivary and lacrimal glands with xerostomia.  It may also be referred to b...
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Minor salivary gland tumours

Minor salivary gland tumors (MSGTs) a type unusual location specific subtype of salivary gland tumours, they account ~ 15-20% of all salivary gland tumoors. The commonest site of MSGTs of the head and neck is oral cavity. The commonest histoligal type is considered to be adenoid cystic carcinoma...
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Minor salivary glands

Minor salivary glands are a subset of the salivary glands. They are small and unnamed salivary glandular tissue scattered throughout the oral cavity and oropharynx as well as more widely in the mucosa of the aerodigestive tract.  They number in the hundreds and are important because salivary gl...
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Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI). The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fracture with inv...
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Modified Stenvers view

The modified Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. It is primarily used to assess electrode placement following the insertion of a cochlear implant. Specifically it assesses the: integrity, positioning, and dep...
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Mondini malformation

Mondini malformation is an inner ear abnormality, and is often used inappropriately to describe any cochlear abnormality, rather than a specific type of cochlear hypoplasia. Thus, most would favour not using the term, except perhaps in cases where the findings exactly match those described by Mo...
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Morning glory syndrome

Morning glory syndrome refers the combination of optic nerve head coloboma with associated midline structural abnormalities of the brain and skull. The name stems from the fundoscopic appearance that resembles the morning glory flower.
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Mucocoele

A mucocoele simply refers to accumulation and expansion of a structure by mucous. It occurs in a variety of locations which are discussed seperately: paranasal sinus mucocoele oral cavity e.g. ranula, mucous retention cysts mucocoele of the appendix 1 mucocoele of the gallbladder mucocoele...
Article

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a tumour that usually occurs in the salivary glands. It can mimic most other tumours of the glands, and therefore is often considered in the differential.  Epidemiology Mucoepidermoid carcinomas are seen throughout all adult age groups, but are most common in middle...
Article

Multinodular goitre

Multinodular goitre (MNG) is defined as an enlarged thyroid gland (i.e. goitre) due to multiple nodules which may have normal, decreased or increased (toxic nodule) function. Clinical presentation MNG is seen more commonly in females (M:F=1:3) in between 35-50 years of age, who present as nodu...
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Multiple cystic neck lesions - differential diagnosis

The differential diagnosis for multiple cystic neck lesions is different to that for a solitary cystic neck mass. Differential diagnosis Cystic neck lesions are seen in: necrotic metastatic SCC nodes: older patient, M>F papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases: usually a younger patient, F&...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are a collection of syndromes characterised by the presence of, as the name would suggest, multiple endocrine tumours. They are autosomal dominant in inheritance. MEN I (Wermer syndrome) MEN II (multiple endocrine adenomatosis) MEN IIa (Sipple synd...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I is also known as Wermer syndrome. Clinical presenation Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the commonest presentations. Pathology Abnormality is related to a tumour suppressor gene located in chromosome 11q13. MEN type I is an autosomal dominant sy...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type II is also known as mucosal neuroma syndrome or multiple endocrine adenomatosis. It is a collection of syndromes characterised by the presence of multiple endocrine tumours.  They are autosomal dominant in inheritance, and share medullary thyroid carcinom...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIa, also known as Sipple syndrome, accounts for most cases of MEN II and is characterised by: pheochromocytomas: in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients, aggressive, and may secrete calcit...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb (also known as mucosal neuroma syndrome 3) accounts for only 5% cases of MEN II and is characterised by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients; aggressive, and ma...
Article

Mumps

Mumps is a (usually) self-limited viral infection that often occurs in epidemics among children. Its incidence has markedly diminished in countries with childhood vaccination programs, but can still be seen in patient who have not received vaccinations or who have waning immunity. Clinical feat...
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Muscles of mastication

The muscles of mastication can be divided into primary and secondary groups according to whether they connect the mandible directly to the skull or if they attach to other structures in the neck, e.g. hyoid, thyroid cartilage. Primary temporalis muscle masseter muscle medial pterygoid muscle...
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Muscles of the tongue

The muscles of the tongue are divided into eight groups. They are divided into intrinsic (entirely within the tongue with no external attachments) and extrinsic muscles. They allow for the complex movements of the tongue: intrinsic group transverse bands superior longitudinal bands inferior ...
Article

Mylohyoid boutonniere

Mylohyoid boutonniere is a normal focal discontinuity in the mylohyoid muscle, which may permit the sublingual salivary gland, fat or vessels - or a combination of each - to protrude out from the sublingual space into the submandibular space. Epidemiology The finding has been observed in up to...
Article

Mylohyoid muscle

The mylohyoid muscle is a paired muscular sling that forms part of the floor of mouth. It also separates the sublingual space (and oral cavity) from the submandibular space.  Summary origin: mylohyoid line/ridge on the medial surface of the mandible insertion: midline raphe that extends from ...
Article

Myoepithelioma

Myoepitheliomas and malignant myoepitheliomas were considered a variant of pleomorphic adenomas until 1991. However, these are also found in breast and bronchus and have gained recognition as separate entities. They account for less than 1% of salivary gland tumours, only rarely undergo malignan...
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Myokymia

Myokymia refers to a fine undulating fascicular tremor of facial musculature which should be distinguished from hemifacial spasm which involves entire muscles rather than individual fascicles. The two conditions may co-exist.

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