Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,862 results found
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Abdominal and pelvic anatomy

Abdominal and pelvic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
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Abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta is the main blood vessel in the abdominal cavity that transmits oxygenated blood from the thoracic cavity to the organs within the abdomen and to the lower limbs. Gross anatomy It is a continuation of descending thoracic aorta at T12 posterior to the median arcuate ligament...
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Abdominal cavity

The abdominal cavity is divided into two major compartments, the peritoneum and retroperitoneum, early in fetal development. The parietal peritoneum is reflected over the peritoneal organs to form a series of supporting peritoneal ligaments, mesenteries and omenta. The peritoneal reflections ca...
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Abdominal surface anatomy

The abdomen, when looking from in front, is divided into nine regions by imaginary planes (two vertical and two horizontal) forming abdominal surface anatomy. The nine regions are of clinical importance when examining and describing pathologies related to the abdomen. The horizontal planes are o...
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Abducens nerve

The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion cavernous sinus portion orbital portion Gross anat...
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Abductor digiti minimi

The abductor digiti minimi muscle overlies the opponens digiti minimi. Summary origin: pisiform, the pisohamate ligament, and tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris insertion: 5th proximal phalanx action: abducts 5th finger at metacarpophalangeal joint arterial supply: ulnar artery innervation...
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Abductor digiti minimi muscle

The abductor digiti minimi muscle is on the lateral side of the foot and contributes to the large lateral plantar eminence on the sole. Summary origin: lateral and medial processes of calcaneal tuberosity, and band of connective tissue connecting calcaneus with base of metatarsal V insertion...
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Abductor hallucis muscle

The abductor hallucis muscle forms the medial margin of the foot and contributes to a soft tissue bulge on the medial side of the sole. Summary origin: medial process of calcaneal tuberosity insertion: medial side of base of proximal phlanx of great toe action: abducts and flexes great to...
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Abductor pollicis brevis

The abductor pollicis brevis is a thin subcutaneous muscle laterally placed in the thenar eminence of the hand. origin: mainly from the flexor retinaculum, few fibres origin from the tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium and tendon of abductor pollicis longus. Accessory slips may spring from the ...
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Abductor pollicis longus

The abductor pollicis longus is a muscle found in the deep posterior compartment of the forearm. As it descends, it becomes superficial and passes under the extensor retinaculum and through the 1st extensor compartment of the wrist before attaching distally. Summary origin: posterior surfaces ...
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Aberrant arachnoid granulations

Aberrant arachnoid granulations (AbAG) are arachnoid granulations that penetrated the dura but failed to migrate normally in the venous sinus. They are most often located in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Occasionally, they are seen at the posterior temporal bone wall. Clinical presenta...
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Aberrant internal carotid artery

An aberrant internal carotid artery is a variant of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and represents a collateral pathway resulting from involution of the normal cervical portion (first embryonic segment) of the ICA 5. There is consequent enlargement of the usually small collaterals which cours...
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Aberrant left pulmonary artery

An aberrant left pulmonary artery (or pulmonary sling) represents an anatomical variant that may result in symptoms because of compression of local structures, in particular, the trachea. Pathology Aberrant left pulmonary arteries are thought to arise from a failure of formation of the 6th aor...
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Aberrant right subclavian artery

Aberrant right subclavian arteries (ARSA), also known as arteria lusoria, are the commonest of the aortic arch anomalies 2.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.5-2%. Clinical presentation They are often asymptomatic, but around 10% of people may complain of tracheo-oesophageal symptom...
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Abnormal renal rotation

Abnormal renal rotation (renal malrotation) refers to an anatomical variation in the position of the kidneys, in particular to anomalous orientation of the renal hilum. It may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. It is almost always an asymptomatic incidental finding.  Epidemiology Malrotation i...
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Absent infrarenal inferior vena cava

An absent infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) can be congenital due to failure of development of the posterior cardinal and supracardinal veins, or acquired as result of intrauterine or perinatal inferior vena cava thrombosis. Epidemiology It is an extremely rare anomaly. Clinical presentatio...
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Accessory appendicular artery

The accessory appendicular artery (or artery of Seshachalam) or is a branch of the posterior caecal artery, which in turn arises from the ileocolic artery, and runs in the mesoappendix. The exact prevalence of this accessory artery and its impact upon the risk of appendicitis varies among studi...
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Accessory breast tissue

Accessory breast tissue is a relatively common congenital condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. This normal variant can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary streak (axilla to the inguinal...
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Accessory fissures of the lung

Accessory fissures of the lung usually occur at the borders of bronchopulmonary segments. They are common normal variants but are less commonly seen on imaging.  Some of the more common accessory fissure include 1: azygos fissure: most commonly seen accessory fissure inferior accessory fissur...
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Accessory gallbladder

Accessory gallbladders are a rare anatomical variant occurring in 0.03% of cases (approximately 1 in 3000 people). They can arise from either the left or right hepatic ducts or both. Accessory gallbladders arise from a bifid diverticulum of the hepatic duct in the 5th or 6th week of development ...
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Accessory hemiazygos vein

The accessory (or superior) hemiazygos vein forms part of the azygos system and along with the hemiazygos vein, it is partially analogous to the right-sided azygos vein. It drains the left superior hemithorax.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The accessory hemiazygos vein is formed by the con...
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Accessory left atrial appendage

An accessory left atrial appendage is a frequent fortuitous finding in cardiac imaging, encountered in ~10% of patients. They are more often seen as a small diverticular structure projecting from the right upper side of the left atrial wall. Differential diagnosis it must not be confused with ...
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Accessory middle cerebral artery

The accessory middle cerebral artery is a variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that arises from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). It is different from a duplicated middle cerebral artery, in which the duplicated vessel originates also from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (...
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Accessory occipital bone sutures

The parietal and occipital bones in particular are common regions for accessory sutures because of their multiple ossification centres. The occipital bone has complex development, ossifying from six centres. The foramen magnum is surrounded by four ossification centres. On each side are the exo...
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Accessory ossicle of the anterior arch of the atlas

The accessory ossicle of the anterior arch of the atlas is a normal variant and is best appreciated on a lateral cervical/sagittal study. It is observed as a circular and corticated osseous density that articulates with the inferior aspect of the anterior arch of the atlas.  It is not associate...
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Accessory ossicles

Accessory ossicles are secondary ossification centres that are separate from the adjacent bone. In most cases, they are congenital in origin, although they may occur as a result of trauma or local degenerative disease 2: shoulder & elbow os acromiale os supratrochleare dorsale wrist (mne...
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Accessory ossicles of the foot

Accessory ossicles of the feet are common developmental variants with almost 40 having been described. The more common ones include: os peroneum os subfibulare os subtibiale os tibiale externum (accessory navicular) os trigonum os calcaneus secundaris os intermetatarseum os supratalare ...
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Accessory ossicles of the wrist

Accessory ossicles of the wrist are commonly seen on plain radiographs of the wrist and associated cross-sectional imaging. Over 20 were originally described 2, although the more common include 1: lunula: between TFCC and triquetrum os styloideum (carpal boss): on dorsal surface of 2nd or 3rd ...
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Accessory parotid glands

Accessory parotid glands are a normal variant and represent ectopic salivary tissue present away and separate from the main parotid gland 1. Epidemiology Accessory parotid glands are not rare and are seen in ~20% of the general population 2. Gross anatomy Located on the masseter muscle, ante...
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Accessory peroneal muscles

Accessory peroneal muscles are a group of accessory muscles that can occur in the foot region as a normal variant in some individuals. The peroneal compartment is known as the lateral compartment of the leg. Peroneus quartus muscle Originally, several accessory muscles were distinguished in th...
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Accessory renal artery

Accessory renal arteries are a common variant and are present in ~25% (range 20-30%) of the population. Sometimes, the term extrarenal artery may be used 2 with a further subclassification of: aberrant renal artery: supplying the superior and/or inferior pole of the kidney accessory renal art...
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Accessory right inferior hepatic vein

An accessory right inferior hepatic vein is the most common variation of the hepatic veins.  It is present in up to 48% of the population and drains the posterior part of the right lobe (mainly segments 6 and 7) directly into the inferior vena cava. Variations in hepatic vascular anatomy are pa...
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Accessory superior acetabular notch

An accessory superior acetabular notch is a normal variant of the acetabulum, which can be seen on radiographs. It may lead to diagnostic confusion, especially in younger patients.  Radiographic features MRI appear as bilateral symmetric fluid-filled pits in the roof of the acetabulum with sh...
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Acetabular foramen

The acetabular foramen is formed by the bony margins of the acetabular notch and completed by the transverse ligament of the hip. From its margins (both transverse ligament and acetabular notch) arises the ligamentum teres. Through it pass nutrient vessels to the femoral head epiphysis.
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Acetabular labrum

Acetabular labrum acts to deepen the acetabulum and increase contact between the pelvis and the femoral head. Its exact biomechanical role remains to be fully elucidated. Gross anatomy The acetabular labrum is a C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure with an opening anteroinferiorly at the site...
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Acetabular notch

The acetablar notch is a depression in the margin of the acetabulum located anteroinferiorly. It is bridged by the transverse ligament, and thus forms the acteabular foramen. The ligamentum teres has part of its origin from the acetabular notch. 
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Acetabulum

The acetabulum is the large cup-shaped cavity on the lateral aspect of the pelvis that articulates with the femoral head to form the hip joint. Gross Anatomy All three bones of the pelvis (the ilium, ischium, and pubis) together form the acetabulum. The three bones are initially separated by a...
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Acromial types

The shape of the acromion had been initially divided into three types (which was known as the Bigliani classification 3), to which a fourth has been added 2. Classification This classification was initially proposed by Bigliani et al in 1986 on outlet view radiographs, and later modified by Ki...
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Acromioclavicular joint

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is a plane synovial joint of the pectoral girdle. Gross anatomy The AC joint is between the small facets of the convex distal clavicle and flat medial acromion. The articular surfaces are lined with hyaline cartilage 4. A wedge-shaped articular disc made from f...
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Acromioclavicular joint configuration

There is much variation in acromioclavicular (AC) joint configuration and should not be confused with pathology.  The relationship of the acromion to the distal clavicle at the AC joint can be described as in the coronal plane 1, 2, 3: horizontal: normal low lying: associated with shoulder im...
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Acromion

The acromion, also known as the acromial process, is a small section of the scapula that extends anteriorly from the spinous process.  Gross anatomy It forms the acromioclavicular joint with the lateral third of the clavicle, and also connects with the coracoid process via the coraco-acromial ...
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Adductor brevis muscle

The adductor brevis is a muscle in the thigh that lies immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus. Summary origin: external surface of body of pubis and inferior pubic ramus insertion: posterior surface of proximal femur, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line action: adducts and...
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Adductor canal

The adductor canal is a muscular tunnel in the thigh. It commences at the inferior end of the femoral triangle and terminates at the adductor hiatus.  Gross anatomy Boundaries anteriorly: sartorius muscle posteromedially: adductor longus and adductor magnus muscles laterally: vastus mediali...
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Adductor hallucis muscle

The adductor hallucis muscle arises by two heads, an oblique and transverse head. It is responsible for adducting the big toe. Summary origin: transverse head: ligaments associated with metatarsophalangeal joints of lateral three toes oblique head: bases of metatarsals II to IV and from shea...
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Adductor longus muscle

The adductor longus is a muscle in the thigh that lies ventral to the adductor magnus. Summary origin: external surface of body of pubis (triangular depression inferior to pubic crest and lateral to pubic symphysis) insertion: linea aspera on middle one-third of shaft of femur action: adduc...
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Adductor magnus muscle

The adductor magnus is the largest and deepest of the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh. Like the adductor longus and brevis muscles, the adductor magnus is a triangular or fan shaped muscle anchored by its apex to the pelvis and attached by its expanded base to the femur. Summary ...
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Adductor pollicis

The adductor pollicis is a large triangular muscle anterior to the plane of the interossei that crosses the palm. Summary origin: transverse head: 3rd metacarpal oblique head: capitate and bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals II insertion: base of proximal phalanx and extensor hood of thumb a...
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Adnexa

Adnexa (pl., sing. adnexus) is a general term that refers to the accessory structures of an organ. In general radiological use, the term often is used synonymously with ovary, an adnexal structure of the uterus. Adnexa have been described with: uterus (adnexa uteri) ovaries, fallopian tubes, ...
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Adrenal gland

The adrenal (suprarenal) glands lie anteromedial to the kidneys. They are paired organs of the endocrine system but are quite asymmetric in shape.  Gross anatomy Each gland is enclosed in the perirenal fascia and each have a body and two limbs - medial and lateral. However, the right adrenal g...
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Agenesis of the left hepatic lobe

Agenesis of the left hepatic lobe is a rare variation in liver anatomy. It is clinically asymptomatic and discovered during imaging or surgery. Radiographic features absence of the left hepatic lobe (left of the falciform ligament, Couinaud segments II and III) absence of left hepatic artery,...
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Agenesis of the right hepatic lobe

Agenesis of the right hepatic lobe is a rare variation in liver anatomy. Radiographic features absence of the right hepatic lobe absence of right hepatic artery, right portal vein, and right hepatic biliary system compensatory hypertrophy of the left hepatic lobe and caudate lobe possible r...
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Agger nasi cells

Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells lying anterolateral and inferior to the frontoethmoidal recess and anterior and above the attachment of the middle turbinate. They are located within the lacrimal bone and therefore have as lateral relations the orbit, the lacrimal s...
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Alar ligament

The alar ligaments join the lateral margins of the sloping upper margin of the dens to the margins of the foramen magnum (adjacent to the occipital condyles) and lie on either side of the apical ligament. They are paired ligaments that are very strong and limit rotation of the head.
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Amastia

Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pathology During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
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Amazia

Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts and a normal nipple and areola complex.  Epidemiology This is a very rare entity and the true prevalence is not known. Although there are strict definition criteria, the di...
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Ambient cistern

The ambient cistern is part of the subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The ambient cistern is a thin, sheet-like extension of the quadrigeminal cistern that extends laterally surrounding around the midbrain. It acts as the connection between the quadrigeminal cistern and the interpeduncular c...
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Amnion

Amnion refers to a membranous structure which covers and protects the embryo. It forms inside the chorion. The amnion usually fuses with the outer chorion by around 14 weeks of gestation. Radiographic features Ultrasound The amnion can be visualised in most pregnancies before the 12th week of...
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Amphiarthroses

Amphiarthroses are a functional class of joint that permit a small amount of movement under normal conditions. Examples symphyses (secondary cartilaginous joints) symphysis pubis intervertebral discs sternomanubrial joint  See also  synarthroses diarthroses
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Ampulla of Vater

The ampulla of Vater is a conical structure at the confluence of the common bile duct (CBD) and the main pancreatic duct that protrudes at the major duodenal papilla into the medial aspect of the descending duodenum. The entire structure is encased by smooth muscle fibers that compose the sphinc...
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Amygdala

Amygdala is a very well studied part of the limbic system and forms part of the mesial temporal lobe.  Gross anatomy The amygdala is a complex structure, located dorsomedially in the temporal lobe, forming the ventral superior, and medial walls of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. Th...
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Anal canal

The anal canal is the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract.  Gross anatomy The anal canal measures ~4 cm long and is continuous with the rectum at the anorectal junction, which is the right angle the rectum takes at levator ani (i.e. the pelvic floor).  The anal canal is a muscular tub...
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Anal sphincter

The anal sphincter is divided into an internal and external anal sphincter. It surrounds the anal canal.  Gross anatomy Internal anal sphincter continuation of inner rectal muscle thickened, circular muscle fibres, up to 5 mm thick composed of visceral muscle External anal sphincter Compo...
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Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...
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Anatomical snuff box

The anatomical snuff box is a surface anatomy feature. It appears as a triangular depression on the lateral surface of the wrist on full extension of the thumb. Anatomy Borders medial – extensor pollicis longus lateral – extensor pollicis brevis and more laterally abductor pollicis longus f...
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Anatomy article structure

Articles pertaining to normal anatomy require a different structure, and the following subheadings are recommended: ========================================================================== As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to ...
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Anatomy article structure: bone

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: articulations: blood supply and innervation: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anatomy article structure: joint

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: movement: ligaments and tendons: relations: Gross anatomy Location Mo...
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Anatomy article structure: nerve

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and course: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy Locat...
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Anatomy article structure: organ

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: function: blood supply and drainage: relations: Gross anatomy Location...
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Anatomy article structure: space/region

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: boundaries: contents: Gross anatomy Location Boundaries Contents Rel...
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Anatomy article structure: vessel

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and termination: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anconeus

The anconeus is a small muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm at the lateral aspect of the elbow. It has little functional significance but should be differentiated from the variably present anconeus epitrochlearis at the medial aspect of the elbow. Summary origin: lateral epicondyle ...
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Anconeus epitrochlearis

Anconeus epitrochlearis is an accessory muscle at the medial aspect of the elbow. It is also known as the accessory anconeus muscle and should not be confused with the anconeus muscle which is present at the lateral aspect of the elbow.  Epidemiology The muscle may be unilateral but has been f...
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Angle of the longitudinal arch

The angle of the longitudinal arch is one of the angles drawn on the weightbearing lateral foot radiograph. The angle is formed between the calcaneal inclination axis and a line drawn along the inferior edge of the 5th metatarsal. The normal angle is 150-170 degrees. In pes cavus, as the heigh...
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Angular gyrus

The angular gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe of the brain. It is one of the two parts of the inferior parietal lobule, the other part being the supramarginal gyrus. It plays a part in language and number processing, memory and reasoning 1. Gross anatomy Relations It lies as a horseshoe...
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Annular pancreas

Annular pancreas is a morphological anomaly which can cause duodenal obstruction. This condition is important to recognise, because radiologists are usually the first person to diagnose such a condition. Epidemiology The incidence is probably 1 in 250, however incidence is not accurately repor...
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Annulus fibrosus

The annulus fibrosus surrounds the nucleus polposus and together they form the intervertebral disc. Gross anatomy The annulus comprises 15 to 20 collagenous (type I) laminae which run obliquely from the edge of one vertebra down to the edge of the vertebra below. The direction of the fibres al...
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Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischaemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
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Ansa cervicalis

The ansa cervicalis is a component of the cervical plexus which gives muscular branches to the geniohyoid muscle of the suprahyoid group and all 4 of the infrahyoid muscles.  Gross anatomy Roots superior root: derived from the anterior primary rami of C1 inferior root: derived from the anter...
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Ansa pancreatica

The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct. It is a communication between the main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung) and the accessory pancreatic duct (of Santorini). Recently, the ansa pancreatica has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with i...
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Anterior angulation of the coccyx

Anterior angulation of the coccyx may be a normal variant but poses a diagnostic challenge for those considering coccygeal trauma. Classification Four types of coccyx have been described type I: the coccyx is curved slightly forward, with its apex pointing caudally (~70%) type II: the coccyx...
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Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane

The anterior atlanto-occipital membrane joins the upper border of the anterior arch of the atlas to the outer margin of the foramen magnum.
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Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
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Anterior cervical space

The anterior cervical space is a small infrahyoid compartment of the head and neck. It is a fat containing space and is not enclosed by fascia 1. Gross anatomy Contents areolar fat Relations posterior: carotid space medial: visceral space superior: submandibular space Related pathology ...
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Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...
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Anterior commissure

The anterior commissure (AC) is a transversely oriented commissural white matter tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres along the midline. It is a very important anatomical landmark that connects different parts of the limbic system on both sides and plays a role in the interhemispheri...
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Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. It is about 4mm in length and demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branches ...
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Anterior compartment of the arm

The anterior compartment of the arm is one of the two compartments of the arm. A sheath of deep fascia surrounds the arm, the brachial fascia. Two intermuscular septa (medial and lateral) extend from it to attach to the humerus at the medial condylar ridge and lateral supracondylar ridge, respe...
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Anterior compartment of the forearm

The forearm is divided in the anterior compartment and the posterior compartment by the deep fascia, lateral intermuscular septum and the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius.  Muscles The eight muscles located in the anterior compartment of the forearm can be divided into three l...
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Anterior compartment of the leg

The anterior compartment of the leg is one of the four compartments in the leg between the knee and foot. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce ankle dorsiflexion and toe extension. The leg is separated into anterior, lateral, superficial posterior and deep posterior compartments by...
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Anterior compartment of the thigh

The anterior compartment of the thigh is one of the three compartments in the thigh. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce hip flexion and knee extension. The thigh is separated into anterior, posterior and medial (adductor) compartments by intermuscular septa and surrounded by the ...
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Anterior cranial fossa

The anterior cranial fossa constitutes the floor of cranial vault which houses the frontal lobes of the brain. Gross anatomy Structures present in the midline of anterior cranial fossa from anterior to posterior are:  groove for superior sagittal sinus groove for anterior meningeal vessels ...
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Anterior cruciate ligament

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the two cruciate ligaments that stabilise the knee joint.  Gross anatomy The ACL arises from the anteromedial aspect of the intercondylar area on the tibial plateau and passes upwards and backwards to attach to the posteromedial aspect of the lateral ...

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