Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

303 results found
Article

2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours

The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016) it is still the most widely used classification system.  Classification Malignant tumours odonto...
Article

2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.   Classification Hodgkin lymphoma nodular lymphocyte predominance classical Hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing mixed cellularity ...
Article

2011 revision of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern: diagnostic HRCT criteria

As a part of international evidence based guidelines adopted by collaborative effort of American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society and the Latin American Thoracic association,  specific diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (...
Article

2014 WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumors

Endometrial stromal tumours (EST) constitute <2% of all uterine tumours and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms1.  Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modifications starting from the earliest study by Norris and Taylor2. This was primarily due to the ...
Article

5-tier ACR system of radiologic breast findings

The 5-tier ACR system was a previously used system for classification of radiologic breast findings, proposed by the American College of Radiologists (ACR). It is no longer in widespread use, having been gradually superseded by the new 6-tier BIRADS classification system first published in 1992....
Article

AAST injury scoring scales

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) is the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorising traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management and aids in prognosis. At the time of writing (mid 2016), 32 different injury scores are av...
Article

AAST kidney injury scale

Renal trauma grading is often done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) 3-4 according to depth of damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system and renal vessels. Classification grade I: contusion or non-enlarging subcapsular perirenal haematoma, and no lac...
Article

AAST liver injury scale

The AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale 1994 revision is the most widely used grading system at the time of writing (mid 2016).  Classification grade I haematoma: subcapsular, <10% surface area laceration: capsular tear, <1 cm  parenchymal depth gr...
Article

AAST spleen injury scale

The 1994 revision of American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale is the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma at the time of writing (mid 2016).  Classification grade I subcapsular haematoma <10% of surface area capsular laceration <1 cm dept...
Article

Abdominal hernia

Abdominal herniations may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on location and content. 75-80% of all hernias occur in the inguinal region. Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops mobile colon segments (s...
Article

Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) unstable...
Article

Agatston score

Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for an early risk stratific...
Article

Ahlbäck classification of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

This classification was proposed by Ahlback et al in 1968. According to Ahlbäck system knee joint osteoarthritis is classified as: grade 1: joint space narrowing (less than 3 mm) grade 2: joint space obliteration grade 3: minor bone attrition (0-5 mm) grade 4: moderate bone attrition (5-10 ...
Article

Alberta stroke program early CT score

The Alberta stroke programe early CT score (ASPECTS) 1 is a 10-point quantitative topographic CT scan score used in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. Segmental assessment of the MCA vascular territory is made and 1 point is deducted from the initial score of 10 for every region ...
Article

Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing subaxial cervical spine injury. Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is ba...
Article

Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC

The Amsterdam criteria are used in the diagnosis hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Amsterdam Criteria I Initial description in 1991: > or equal to 3 relatives with colorectal cancer (CRC) > or equal to 1 case in a first degree relative > or equal to 2 successive g...
Article

Ankle fractures

Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in post multitrauma functional impairment t...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fractures or tibial eminence avulsion fractures are a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5. Epidemiology It is ...
Article

Apgar score

Apgar score was originally described by Virginia Apgar (American anaesthesiologist, 1909-1974) in 1952. Helpfully, her surname is also a useful mnemonic for remembering the 5 factors: each is graded as 0, 1 or 2 with a total possible score of 10. The lower the score the worse the prognosis. Th...
Article

Arnold-Hilgartner classification: haemophilic arthropathy

Arnold-Hilgartner classification is a plain radiograph grading system for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee 1,2: stage 0: normal joint stage I: no skeletal abnormalities, soft-tissue swelling is present stage II: osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis, no cysts, no narrowing of the ca...
Article

Arrthymogenic right ventricular dysplasia diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrthymogenic right ventricular dysplasia to be made patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the right ventricle ...
Article

ASIA impairment scale

This scale was developed by American Spinal Injury Association in 2006, and at the time of writing (July 2016), remains the most widely used scale. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale is part of the ASIA spinal cord injury classification. It divides spinal cord injuri...
Article

Autoimmune pancreatitis (diagnostic criteria)

There are several diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), with some overlap and contradictions. At the time of writing (July 2016), these are the most widely used diagnostic criterias. Asian 2008 AIP diagnostic criteria both criteria I to be fulfilled one criteria II consiste...
Article

Avascular necrosis of the hip classification

The Ficat classification is a commonly used system to stage AVN of the hip, and uses a combination on plain radiograph, MRI and clinical features: stage 0 plain radiograph: normal MRI: normal clinical symptoms: nil stage I plain radiograph: normal or minor osteopaenia MRI: oedema bone sc...
Article

Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts

This classification was intially proposed by Bailey in 19292 and remains the most widely used classification system at time of writing (July 2016). Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts provides a structure for classing second branchial cleft cysts into four types. It is no long...
Article

Balthazar score

The Balthazar score is a subscore within the CT severity index (CTSI) for grading of acute pancreatitis.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score: grading of pancreatitis (A-E) grading the extent of pancreatic necrosis The Balthazar score was originally used alone, but the addition of a sc...
Article

Barkovich classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Barkovich classifies focal cortical dysplasias among the his extensive classification system for malformations of cortical development, distributing them as follows: Type I and type IIb (transcortical dysplasia - Taylor type with balloon cells) as non-neoplastic malformations due to abnormal ne...
Article

Barrow classification of caroticocavernous fistulae

Barrow caroticocavernous fistula classification divides caroticocavernous fistulas into direct (type A) or indirect (types B-D). This classification was proposed by Barrow et al. in 1985 1 and at the time of writing (mid 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing caroticocavernous ...
Article

Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
Article

Berndt and Harty classification

Berndt and Harty classification is used for osteochondral lesions of the talus. Classification stage I: subchondral bone compression (marrow edema) stage II stage IIa: subchondral cyst stage IIb: incomplete separation of fragment stage III: complete separation but no displacement stage IV...
Article

Bethesda criteria of HNPCC

The Bethesda criteria are an alternative to the Amsterdam criteria for the clinical diagnosis of HNPCC.  Diagnosis of  HNPCC is made if any of the following criteria are fulfilled: Amsterdam criteria are met 2 or more HNPCC related malignancies  patient with colorectal cancer (CRC) has firs...
Article

BI-RADS 0

BIRADS 0 category is one of six from the breast imaging reporting and data system, and is used when imaging is incomplete such as: when further imaging or information is required, e.g. compression, magnification, special mammographic views, ultrasound when requesting previous images not availa...
Article

BI-RADS I

A BIRADS I category under the breast imaging reporting and data system is when no finding is present in an imaging modality (not even a benign finding).
Article

BI-RADS II

BI-RADS II is a benign category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have essentially a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat containing lesions such a...
Article

BI-RADS III

BIRADS III is an intermediate category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. While it is usually classified as benign or probably benign, a finding placed in this category should have a very high probability of being benign. The risk of malignancy in a BIRADS III lesion is considered ...
Article

BI-RADS IV

A BIRADS IV lesion under the breast imaging reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BIRADS IV lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
Article

Biffl scale for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a set of clinical and risk factors for BCVI.  Class...
Article

BIRADS V

A BIRADS V lesion under the BIRADS (breast imaging reporting and data system) refers to a lesion that is highly suspicious for malignancy, requiring appropriate action to be taken (i.e. biopsy and management as appropriate). BIRADS V lesions have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer wi...
Article

BIRADS VI

BIRADS VI is a new addition to the ACR (American College of Radiology) BIRAD system. The prior classification system was a 5 tier system. The current system is a 6 tier system. According to the current BIRADS tier, patients with biopsy proven cancer prior to definitive therapy would be category...
Article

Bismuth-Corlette classification

The Bismuth-Corlette classification is a classification system for perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, which is based on the extent of ductal infiltration.   Classification type I limited to the common hepatic duct, below the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts type II in...
Article

Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Blumcke et al. proposed the most recent (2011) 2 and now widely adopted consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia, which shares many features with the previously described classifications system by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).  Unfortunately, as is the case with many ...
Article

Bone tumours

There are a bewildering number of bone tumours with a wide variety of radiological appearances: bone-forming tumours: osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma bone island - enostosis osteopoikilosis osteoma osteosarcoma cartilage-forming tumours: enchondroma enchondromatosis-Ollier disease Maffu...
Article

Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) groups these lesions into three types based upon the site of venous drainage and the presence or absence of cortical venous drainage. It was first proposed in 1995 1 and remains popular although, at the time of writing (July 2016) ...
Article

Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment. Classification Bosniak 1 simple cy...
Article

Bouthillier classification of ICA segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid 2016). There are few others classifications systems including proposed by Fisher (1938), Gi...
Article

Boyden classification of bronchi

The Boyden classification of bronchi refers to the standard nomenclature used to describe bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy. Each lung has 10 segments, however on the left, the first two segments share a common trunk and are hence B1/2. Also given the shared trunk on the left of the lower lobe...
Article

Brachydactyly type A1 - Farabee type

Brachydactyly type A1 or Farabee type brachydactly is a sub type of brachydactyly. It was the first human anomaly recognized to have a mendelian pattern of inheritance. The anomaly is characterised by hypoplasia or aplasia of middle phalanges of 2-5 digit in hands and feet and proximal phalanges...
Article

Brachydactyly type A2 - Mohr Wreidt type

Brachydactyly type A2 or Mohr Wriedt type is characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the 2nd middle phalanx of the index finger, second toe and sometimes little finger. There is radial deviation of index finger and tibial deviation of second toe. Pathology Type A2 brachydactyly can be caused by...
Article

Brachydactyly type A3

Brachydactyly type A3 is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanx of the little finger with radial deviation of distal phalanx. Slanting of the distal articular surface of the middle phalanx leads to radial deflection of the distal phalanx. However it is not always associated with clino...
Article

Brachydactyly type A4 - Temtamy type

Brachydactyly type A4 or Temtamy type is characterized by brachymesophalangy (absent or hypoplastic middle phalanx) of 2nd and 5th fingers. Other less common features include club foot, clinodactyly, ulnar deviation of 2nd finger. Pathology Like other brachydactyly type A4 is also an autosomal...
Article

Brachydactyly type A5

Brachydactyly type A5 is characterized by absence of the middle phalanges and nail dysplasia with duplicated terminal phalanx of the thumb with resultant bifid thumb. Inheritance is suggested as autosomal dominant.  
Article

Brainstem stroke syndromes

Brainstem stroke syndromes refer to a group of syndromes that occur secondary to occlusion of small perforating arteries of the posterior circulation. The resulted infarction has characteristic clinical picture according to the involved area however, generally there is ipsilateral cranial nerve ...
Article

Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BIRADS)

BIRADS classification is proposed by American College of Radiology, last updated in November 2015, and is widely used classification system at time of writing this article (July 2016). The BIRADS acronym stands for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System which is a widely accepted risk assessm...
Article

Capsulolabral insertion classification

There is variation in the relationship between the glenoid labrum and the anterior shoulder joint capsule. This has been divided into three types: Type 1: capsule inserts into the labrum proper Type 2: capsule inserts into the base of the labrum, or within 1cm of the base Type 3: capsule inse...
Article

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction" 1. It has been classified according to several systems 1995 WHO/ISFC cardiomyopathy classification system: Elliott et al classification system:  published by the European Society of Cardio...
Article

Cardiomyopathy (classification) - WHO/ISFC 1995

Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. A cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction". It was initially classified according to the 1995 WHO/ISFC system as follows: dilated cardiomy...
Article

Castellvi classification of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV): type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse (at least 19 mm) Ia: unilateral Ib: bilateral type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarisation/sacralisation; enlargemen...
Article

Catterall classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

The Catterall classification is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head: Stage I bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head changes are visible best in frog leg lateral view no...
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by physicians, surgeons or radiologists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) non-tunnelled CVCs ...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis - grading

A very old and reliable classification was given by Kellgren et al, for cervical degenerative changes based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph. In present context it can also be applied on MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebral disc...
Article

Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: ​Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injuries)
Article

Chauffeur fracture

Chauffeur fractures (also known as Hutchinson fractures or backfire fractures) are intraarticular fractures of the radial styloid process. The radial styloid is within the fracture fragment, although the fragment can vary markedly in size. Pathology Mechanism These injuries are sustained eith...
Article

Chest radiograph classification of pulmonary sarcoidosis

Pulmonary sarcoidosis may be classified on a chest radiograph into 5 stages 1-2: stage 0: normal chest radiograph 5-10% of patients at presentation stage I: hilar or mediastinal nodal enlargement only 45-65% of patients at presentation 60% go onto complete resolution stage II: nodal enlarg...
Article

Child-Pugh score

The Child-Pugh score is a scoring system to measure the severity of chronic liver disease inclusive of cirrhosis. The intention is to provide a system with which clinicians can objectively communicate about liver function. The score is composed from several categories: total bilirubin, μmol/l ...
Article

Chondromalacia grading

Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
Article

Classification of antrochoanal polyps

CT is the modality of choice for assessment of antrochoanal polyps. A classification system has been proposed:  Stage I : strictly an antronasal polyp Stage II : if the polyp extends to the nasopharynx and the accessory ostium of the maxillary sinus is occluded fully by the neck of the ACP St...
Article

Classification of cerebral vascular malformations

Classically cerebral vascular malformations can be classified into four basic histopathologic types: arteriovenous malformations venous malformations capillary telangiectasias cavernous angiomas Recently CVMs have been reclassified according to a combination of anatomical, haemodynamic and ...
Article

Classification of DCIS

The new pathological classification of DCIS is based on cytonuclear atypia, degree of necrosis, size, and distance from margin/architecture. Low and intermediate grades DCIS require cytologic, architectural and size criteria to be met but high-grade DCIS requires only cytologic criteria; this is...
Article

Classification of gamekeeper's thumb

The classification of gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb) is based on whether a fracture is present and whether the injury is stable: type I fracture present, which is non-displaced and stable in flexion typically treated with a splint/cast type II displaced fracture present r...
Article

Classification of proximal focal femoral deficiency

Classification of proximal femoral deficiency (PFFD) can be complicated and numerous such classifications have been proposed. For a discussion of the condition refer to the article proximal focal femoral deficiency. One of the simplest and most widely used is that proposed by Aitken 1 which isb...
Article

Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
Article

Classification of spinal meningeal cysts

Spinal meningeal cysts can be classified according to a system published by Nabor et. al 2: type I: extradural meningeal cyst without neural tissue type Ia: extradural spinal arachnoid cyst type Ib: sacral meningocele type II: extradural meningeal cyst containing neural tissue, e.g. Tarlov c...
Article

Classification system for malformations of cortical development

Classification system for malformations of cortical development organises a myriad of conditions according to one of three major underlying  mechanisms: abnormal cell proliferation abnormal neuronal migration abnormal cortical organisation As is to be expected a number of conditions fall out...
Article

Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. A classification proposed by Barkovich et al in 2009 1 divides cerebellar malformations in two ...
Article

Classification system for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull

Classification systems for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull are varied and constantly changing as the underlying embryology and genetics are uncovered. A relatively simple and robust classification system is based on the location of abnormalities, always remembering that midline abno...
Article

Close reduction-internal fixation

Closed reduction-internal fixation, abbreviated to CRIF, refers to the orthopaedic operative management of a fracture (or fracture-dislocation complex) where closed reduction is performed (manipulation) and internal fixation is applied, usually in the form of K-wires to stabilise the fracture. ...
Article

Cochlear anomalies (classification)

Cochlear anomalies are variety of congenital anomalies which, depending on the exact time at which an insult occurs during embryogenesis, may have different manifestations. Terminology is often used imprecisely leading to confusion not only among clinicians but also in the literature. Classific...
Article

Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas correlates venous drainage patterns with increasingly aggressive neurological clinical course. It was first described in 1995 1 and at the time of writing (July 2016) is probably the most widely used classification system for dural arter...
Article

Congenital utero-vaginal anomalies

There are many classification systems for congenital utero-vaginal anomalies. These include: Buttram and Gibbons classification 2 American Fertility Society (AFS) classification modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification This classification divid...
Article

Conotruncal cardiac anomalies

Conotruncal heart defects (CHDs) are group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. They are a leading cause symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero. Epidemiology They may account for up to a fifth of all congenital cardiac anomalies diagnosed prenatally 2. Clinical presentatio...
Article

Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion, or shearing off by th...
Article

CT colonography reporting and data system

CT colonography reporting and data system is a method devised to standardise CT colonography reporting. Classification It primarily classifies abnormalities into colonic (C) and extra-colonic (E). Colonic classification C0: inadequate study C1: normal colon/benign lesion: routine screening ...
Article

CT severity index in acute pancreatitis

The CT severity index (CTSI) is based on findings from a CT scan with intravenous contrast to assess the severity of acute pancreatitis. The severity of computed tomography findings have been found to correlate well with clinical indices of severity.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score:...
Article

Currarino classification of anomalies of posterior arch of atlas

This classifation was proposed by Currarino in 1994 and at the time of writing (July 2016) is the most widely accepted classification. Currarino's classification is a classification system used to define the anomalies of the posterior atlas arch: A: failure of posterior midline fusion of the t...
Article

Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased or decreased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora): increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the ...
Article

DeBakey classification

Along with the Stanford classification, the DeBakey classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. Classification The DeBakey classification divides dissections into 1-5: type I: involves asce...
Article

Deltoid ligament injury

Deltoid ligament injuries involve the deltoid ligament that forms the medial part of the ankle joint. It attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones. Pathology Mechanism of injury It occurs due to eversion and/or pronation injury, or can be associated with lateral ankle fractures. ...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI and risk factors.  Signs and s...
Article

Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis

Fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was well underway by the age of 15 years and was complete by 17-18 years. Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly. Persistence of a scar at the site of fusion was demonstrated through to age 25 years.
Article

Diffuse astrocytoma grading

Diffuse astrocytomas can be graded in according to a number of systems, the most popular being the WHO grading system. In general these grading systems focus on the presence or absence of a number of histological features 3: cellular atypia/anaplasia  mitotic activity microvascular proliferat...
Article

Distal fibula fracture (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Distal fibula fractures are the commonest fracture at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury. Background Pathop...
Article

Dukes staging system

The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice. Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...
Article

Duplex appendix

Duplex appendix is a rare anomaly of the appendix and is usually discovered incidentally during surgery for appendicitis. Epidemiology Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare. It is found in only 1 in 25,000 patients (incidence ~0.004%) operated on for acute appendicitis. Altho...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert_accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert_accept Thank you for updating your details.