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2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours

The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016) it is still the most widely used classification system.  Classification Malignant tumours odonto...

Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts

This classification was intially proposed by Bailey in 19292 and remains the most widely used classification system at time of writing (July 2016). Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts provides a structure for classing second branchial cleft cysts into four types. It is no long...

Barrow classification of caroticocavernous fistulae

Barrow caroticocavernous fistula classification divides caroticocavernous fistulas into direct (type A) or indirect (types B-D). This classification was proposed by Barrow et al. in 1985 1 and at the time of writing (mid 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing caroticocavernous ...

Biffl scale for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a set of clinical and risk factors for BCVI.  Class...

Bouthillier classification of ICA segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid 2016). There are few others classifications systems including proposed by Fisher (1938), Gi...

Classification of antrochoanal polyps

CT is the modality of choice for assessment of antrochoanal polyps. A classification system has been proposed:  Stage I : strictly an antronasal polyp Stage II : if the polyp extends to the nasopharynx and the accessory ostium of the maxillary sinus is occluded fully by the neck of the ACP St...

Cochlear anomalies (classification)

Cochlear anomalies are variety of congenital anomalies which, depending on the exact time at which an insult occurs during embryogenesis, may have different manifestations. Terminology is often used imprecisely leading to confusion not only among clinicians but also in the literature. Classific...

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI and risk factors.  Signs and s...

Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and light making them susceptible to injury. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures are most com...

Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid bo...

Lymph node levels of the neck

Lymph nodes in the neck have been divided into seven levels, generally for the purpose of squamous cell carcinoma staging. This system is not inclusive of several important groups, however, such as the supraclavicular, parotid and retropharyngeal space nodes.  Level I   below mylohyoid muscle ...

Markowitz and Manson classification system of naso-orbitoethmoid fractures

The Markowitz and Manson classification system categorises fractures of the naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex as follows 1: type I - in which the medial canthal tendon is intact and connected to a single large fracture fragment type II - the fracture is comminuted, and the medial canthal tendon...

McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS)

The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS) is a scoring system developed to estimate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.1 Scoring system The MTNS is based on 22 parameters: eight clinical or laboratory parameters: gender (male): 1 point age (>45 years old): 1 point palpable nodule (p...


Microtia refers to a small pinna of the ear, when is it completely absent it is termed anotia. Epidemiology The estimated incidence at around 1:9000 live births. It is more common in males and there is a recognised right sided predilection. Pathology Associations Microtia can be associated ...

Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI). The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fracture with inv...

Neck dissection classification

There are several types of neck dissections which can classified as follows: Radical neck dissection Radical neck dissection is considered to be the standard basic procedure for cervical lymphadenectomy. All other procedures represent one or more alterations of this procedure. The dissection i...

Normal bone marrow signal of the clivus

Bone marrow signal of the clivus changes predictably with age and is well assessed with midline T1 non-fat saturated, non-contrast images. As is seen in the rest of the body the proportion of yellow (fatty) marrow increases with age. Knowledge of these changes allows diagnosis of the abnormal cl...

Odontoid process fracture: Roy-Camille classification

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...

Patterns of sinonasal obstruction

Recognising patterns of sinonasal obstruction is useful to help localise the area of pathology and narrow the differential diagnosis.  Radiographic features Babbel et al described five pattern of sinonasal obstruction 1, which are readily apparent on CT: Infundibular pattern opacification of...

T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity

The T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity is as follows: Oral cavity The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferio...

T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour

The T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour is as follows Definition The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region. T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour...

T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx

The T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx is as follows: Definition: The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferiorsurface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posteriortonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior ...

Temporal bone fractures

A temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of blunt head injury, generally from severe trauma. Associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, shear (or diffuse axonal) injury and brain contusion are common. Early identification of temporal bone trauma is essential to mana...

Thyroid image reporting and data system (TIRADS)

TIRADS is a risk stratification system for classifying thyroid lesions and was recently recognized in an ACR white paper 5. Its use is being advocated similar to BIRADS category for breast lesions.  Classification Classification system has been proposed by Horvath et al1, with a modified recom...

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