Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

108 results found
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: central core comprised of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessels a...
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Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis is an acute inflammation of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa that last less than four weeks and can occur in any of the paranasal sinuses. Clinical presentation Fever, headache, postnasal discharge of thick sputum, nasal congestion and abnormal smell. Pathology Aetiology ...
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Amaurosis fugax

Amaurosis fugax is the transient mono-ocular loss of vision, normally lasting a few seconds to a few minutes, and is secondary to vascular ischaemia/insufficiency. Usually the cause is ascribed to occlusion of the central retinal artery there are a wide number of local and central causes. 
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Atlantodental interval

The atlantodental interval (ADI), as the name suggests, is the horizontal distance between the anterior arch of the atlas and the dens of the axis, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries and injuries of the atlas and axis. It is the distance (in mm) between the posteri...
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Autoimmune thyroiditis

Autoimmune thyroiditises (AIT) refers to a group of conditions where there is inflammation involving the thyroid gland related to thyroid antibodies. Epidemiology They are most common thyroid disease group in the paediatric population 5. Pathology Entities that fall under this category inclu...
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Basion-axial interval

The basion-axial interval (BAI), as the name suggests, is the horizontal distance between the basion and the posterior cortex of the axis, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. It is the distance (in mm) between the basion and the superior extension of the posterior ...
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Basion-dens interval

The basion-dens interval (BDI), as the name suggests, is the distance between the basion and the tip of the dens, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. It is the distance from the most inferior portion of the basion to the closest point of the superior aspect of the ...
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Benign metastasising tumours

There are a number of benign metastasising tumours: benign metastasising meningioma 1,2 benign metastasising leiomyoma 3 primary adenoma of thyroid 4 giant cell tumour of bone 5
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Benign minor salivary gland pathology

Benign minor salivary gland pathology is a broad term that encompasses a number of relatively uncommon pathologies that affect the minor salivary glands of the head and neck: salivary retention cysts benign neoplasms pleomorphic adenoma
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Bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

Bilateral thinning of the parietal bones (also known as biparietal osteodystrophy) is an uncommon, slowly progressive acquired disease of middle-aged people with slight female predilection. It is typically an incidental finding. The aetiology is unknown but is thought to be an age-related proces...
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Bimastoid line

The bimastoid line has been described and used to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal skull plain film and coronal recontructed CT image. The bimastoid line is drawn between right and left tip of mastoids. The tip of  the odontoid process of C2 normally projects less than or equal to 10 mm...
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognise basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modifica...
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Cleft palate

Cleft palate is a type of facial cleft. It can occur in two main aetiologically different forms: in association with a cleft lip: cleft lip +/- palate (much commoner) on its own: isolated cleft palate (rarer)
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Clival masses

The differential of a mass involving or arising from the clivus is a relatively narrow one and can be divided into whether the lesion arises from the skull base itself, from the intracranial compartment or from below the base of skull.   When evaluating the clivus it is important to compare the...
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Cochlear implant

Cochlear implants (CI) are a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike conventional hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound, but works by directly stimulating any functioning audi...
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Conductive hearing loss

Conductive hearing loss is caused by a range of developmental, congenital or acquired pathology to the external, middle or inner ear. Pathology Essentially any process that obstructs or disrupts the passage of sound waves through the outer or middle ear can cause conductive hearing loss and th...
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Convexal subarachnoid haemorrhage

Convexal subarachnoid haemorrhages (SAH) are nontraumatic intracranial haemorrhages that occur within the surface sulci of the brain (c.f. basal cisternal distribution of aneurysmal SAH). There are various causes of convexal SAH, some of which include: dural venous sinus thromboses cortical v...
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Cranial gun shot injuries

Cranial gun shot injuries are a form of penetrating traumatic brain injuries, which are much less common than blunt traumatic brain injuries.  Radiographic features Please see the main article "imaging of gun shot injuries" for a general description of imaging features.  CT The ent...
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Craniotomy

Craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a piece of calvarial bone is removed to allow intracranial exposure. The bone flap is replaced at the end of the procedure, usually secured with microplates and screws. If the bone flap is not replaced it is either a craniectomy or cranioplasty.  Classif...
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CSF otorrhoea

CSF otorrhoea is defined as leakage of CSF from subarachnoid space into the middle ear cavity or mastoid air cells. Epidemiology There are a number of underlying causes, and thus no specific demographic is affected.  Clinical presentation Patients typically present with conductive deafness a...
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Cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes

Cystic or necrotic appearing lymph nodes can be caused by a number of infectious, inflammatory or malignant conditions: Systemic squamous cell carcinoma metastases treated lymphoma leukemia plasmacytoid T-cell leukemia acute myeloid leukemia viral lymphadenitis herpes simplex lymphadenit...
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Cystic cervical mass adjacent to the angle of mandible

The differential diagnosis cystic mass adjacent to the angle of mandible includes: 2nd branchial cleft cyst lymphatic malformation (lymphangioma) cystic lymphadenopathy  from tuberculosis  from metastatic squamous cell carcinoma  from metastatic papillary thyroid cancer See...
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Cystic parotid lesions

The differential for cystic parotid lesions includes: bilateral cystic parotid lesions Warthin tumour benign lymphoepithelial lesions of HIV Sjögren syndrome sialocoeles unilateral cystic parotid lesion(s) Warthin tumour sialocoele first branchial cleft cyst: parotid lymphoepithelial cy...
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Dental abscess

Dental (periapical) abscess is an acute infection of the periapical tissue around the root of the tooth. Clinical presentation Patients may present with pain, oedema and purulent discharged localised to the site of pathology with or without fever and tender cervical lymphadenopathy 1. Patholo...
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Deviated nasal septum

A deviated nasal septum is a common incidental finding seen on brain and paranasal sinus CT studies. Pathology Aetiology It can be congenital or acquired. The most common acquired cause is trauma from motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and altercations. Associations Deviated ...
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Differential diagnosis for calcified masses in the mandible

Differential diagnosis for calcified masses in the mandible includes: calcifying odontogenic cyst (Gorlin cyst) calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (Pindborg tumour) fibrous dysplasia foreign body odontoma cemento-ossifying fibroma osteoma synovial osteochondromatosis focal sclero...
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Differential diagnosis of adult cervical lymphanopathy

Cervical lymphadenopathy in an adult can result from a vast number of conditions. They include: malignancy metastases  from head and neck tumours lymphoma other neoplastic lesions Castleman disease Kaposi sarcoma infection bacterial infection viral infection Epstein-Barr virus herpes...
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Differential diagnosis of petrous apex lesions

There is a wide differential diagnosis of petrous apex lesions: asymmetrical marrow petrous apex cephalocoele 4 petrous apicitis congenital cholesteatoma  cholesterol granuloma: most common cystic appearing lesion 3 mucocoele of petrous apex 2 benign tumours meningioma schwannoma malig...
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Dolichoectasia

The term dolichoectasia means dilated and elongated. It is used to characterise arteries that have shown a significant deterioration of their tunica intima (and occasionally the tunica media), weakening the vessel walls and causing the artery to elongate and distend. Epidemiology Dolichoectasi...
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Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to subjective awareness of difficulty or obstruction during swallowing. It is a relatively common and increasingly prevalent clinical problem.  Fluoroscopy is the mainstay of imaging assessment but manometry can help evaluate the esophageal motor pattern and lower esophageal sp...
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Ectopia lentis

Ectopia lentis refers to subluxation or dislocation of the lens secondary to dysfunction or disruption of zonular fibres.  Pathology Aetiology trauma systemic and syndromic disorders Marfan syndrome typically upwards and out most common spontaneous cause 2 homocystinuria -  typically dow...
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Enlarged extra-ocular muscles

There is a short list of causes for enlarged extra-ocular muscles: thyroid associated orbitopathy lymphoma orbital pseudotumour sarcoidosis metastases amyloidosis (very rare) 2
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Extraconal orbital lesions

Extraconal orbital lesions include lesions which arise within the extraconal orbital structures and those extending from adjacent structures into the orbits. Differential diagnosis Intraorbital lesions dermoid cyst: most common lesion in paediatrics  lacrimial gland lesions dacryocystocoele...
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Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and light making them susceptible to injury. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures are most com...
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Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of of physiological insult to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical pres...
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Focal calvarial thinning

Focal calvarial thinning can result from a number of causes. They include: bilateral thinning of the parietal bones (normal variant) most common arachnoid cyst mega cisterna magna peripherally located tumors (e.g. oligodendroglioma) See also calvarial thinning calvarial thickening
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Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
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Heterogeneous thyroid echotexture

Heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid gland is a non specific finding and has been associated with conditions diffusely affecting the thyroid gland. These include Hashimoto thyroiditis Graves disease
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High arched palate

High arched palates are a facial feature of many syndromes, although the classic association is Marfan syndrome. There are hundreds of conditions associated with high arched palates, with some of the radiologically-more important including: Down syndrome Apert syndrome Rubinstein-Taybi syndro...
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Hyperattenuating paranasal sinus opacification

Hyperattenuating paranasal sinus opacification can arise in a number of situations. These include fungal sinus disease inspissated secrections acute haemorrhage into sinus Differential diagnosis In some situations can consider early calcification within the sinus
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Hyperostosis of the skull

The differential diagnosis for hyperostosis of the skull depends on whether it is focal or diffuse. Differential diagnosis Diffuse Paget's disease of bone metastatic disease, especially prostate carcinoma chronic, severe anaemia hyperparathyroidism acromegaly osteopetrosis hyperostosis ...
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Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body. It can be primary, secondary or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the PTH lead to increased osteoclastic activity...
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Hypotelorism

Hypotelorism refers to an abnormal decrease in distance between any two organs although some authors use the term synonymously with orbital hypotelorism meaning an abnormal decrease in the distance between the two eyes (the eyes appear too close together). The article mainly focuses on the latte...
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Ingested bones

Ingested bones that become lodged in the throat or gastro-intestinal tract are a common presentation to the emergency department. Recognition is important because these cases can be potentially fatal.  Pathology Patients may present with a 'foreign body' feeling in the throat after eating fish...
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Intraconal orbital lesions

Intraconal orbital lesions are broadly divided to two main groups; those with or without involvement of the optic nerves: Lesions with optic nerve involvement: optic nerve glioma optic nerve meningioma optic neuritis pseudotumour lymphoma and leukaemia intracranial hypertension retinobla...
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Jugular fossa masses

Jugular fossa masses comprise a range of pathological lesions that arise from or extend into the jugular fossa in the skull base. Although not a common location for tumours it is not unusual for jugular fossa lesions to be discovered incidentally on cross sectional imaging. Terminology Althoug...
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Labyrinthitis

Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous labyrinth. Pathology Labyrinthitis can be divided according to aetiology. Tympanogenic Labyrinthitis is a potential complication of acute otomastoiditis with spread of infection or of toxins from the middle ear to the inner ear via either the r...
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Lacrimal gland masses

Lacrimal gland masses​ can be classified into two broad groups - inflammatory (~50%) and neoplastic, either lymphoma (25%) or salivary gland type tumours (~25%).  Pathology Inflammatory sarcoidosis affects ~25% of patients with systemic disease orbital inflammatory pseudotumour lacrimal gl...
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Laryngeal cyst

Laryngeal cysts can occur in any part of larynx, but are more frequent on supraglottic locations, such as epiglottis and vallecula. The prevalence of each location varies on different studies.  Epidemiology The laryngeal cysts represent a rare group, about 5%, of benign laryngeal lesions 1. Th...
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Leukocoria

Leukocoria (also spelled as leucocoria or leukokoria) refers to an abnormal white reflection from the retina. Despite its colour, the reflection is related to the familiar red-eye effect. Usually, when a light is shone through the iris, the retina appears red to the observer. In leukocoria, the ...
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Longitudinal temporal bone fractures

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures normally occurs parallel to the long axis of the petrous bone. A more current classification of the extent of temporal bone fractures describes the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientation (see temporal bone fractures.) Epidemiology...
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Macrophthalmia

The increased globe size or macrophthalmia may have many differentials: buphthalmos (congenital glaucoma) axial myopia macrophthalmus in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Focal enlargement: staphyloma coloboma  
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Mandibular lesions

Mandibular lesions are myriad and common. The presence of teeth results in lesions that are specific to the mandible (and maxilla) and a useful classification that defines them as odontogenic or non-odontogenic. While it may often not be possible to make a diagnosis on imaging alone, this classi...
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Mandibular periostitis

There are many causes for mandibular periostitis: Langerhans cell histiocytosis malignancy (both primary and metastatic) necrosis, e.g. radiation osteonecrosis osteomyelitis pyogenic Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis actinomycosis (uncommon) syphilis (uncommon) tuberculosis (uncommon) r...
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McRae line

McRae line is a radiographic line drawn on a lateral skull radiograph or midsagittal section of CT or MRI, joining the basion and opisthion. Normal position of the tip of dens is 5mm below this line. If the tip of the dens migrates above this line it indicates the presence of basilar invaginati...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A AA alleged assault anaplastic astrocytoma AAA: abdominal aortic aneurysm AAC: adenocystic carcinoma AARF: atlantoaxial ro...
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Medical devices in the neck

Medical devices in the neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film and CT reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck onto the chest and stomach. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) central venous catheters ...
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Middle ear effusion

Middle ear effusions are frequent in children due to prominent adenoids and horizontal Eustachian tubes. These do not require imaging, and can be treated expectantly / medically / surgically with gromits. Eustachian tube dysfunction is the accepted aetiology, with resorption of air and extravasa...
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Middle ear tumours

There are a range of middle ear tumours, which are more likely to be benign than malignant.  Pathology The three most common middle ear tumours are (not in any particular order as there are differences in the literature) 1-3:  glomus tympanicum paraganglioma congenital cholesteatoma middle ...
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Midline nasal region lesions

A variety of congenital midface anomalies occur in children. Although rare, these disorders are clinically important because of their potential for connection to the central nervous system. Lesions presenting as a midline nasal mass include: nasal glioma nasal encephalocele nasal dermoid cyst...
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Midline neck mass

Midline neck masses have a relatively narrow differential, as few structures are present in the midline. Dividing the causes according to structure of origin is a useful schema. lymph node(s): Delphian node(s) inflammatory adenopathy malignancy thyroid gland thyroglossal duct cyst thyroid ...
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Multiple cystic neck lesions - differential diagnosis

The differential diagnosis for multiple cystic neck lesions is different to that for a solitary cystic neck mass. Differential diagnosis Cystic neck lesions are seen in: necrotic metastatic SCC nodes: older patient, M>F papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases: usually a younger patient, F&...
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Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus

Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus results in epiphora, and can be primary or secondary, congenital or acquired. Obstruction can occur in canaliculi, lacrimal sac, or nasolacrimal duct (post saccular) levels. Congenital obstruction is usually secondary to persistence of the membrane...
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Ocular metastasis

Ocular metastases, also termed uveal metastases, account for over 80% of all ocular pathology, and need to be distinguished from extraocular metastasis, which are a quite different group of tumours. This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting the orbits. For other intracranial metast...
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Ocular pathology

Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and therefore represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Ocular metastases account for over 80% of all ocular pathology. With regard to the remainder of ocular lesions, the primary differentiating factor ...
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Ophthalmoplegia

Ophthalmoplegia describes the abnormal eye movement that occurs because of paralysis of one or more of the six extraocular muscles involved in eye movements. Classification can be based on the cause of the ophthalmoplegia or the directions of the affected movements. There are numerous causes of...
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Optic nerve enlargement

Enlargement of the optic nerves is uncommon and has a surprisingly broad differential: optic nerve glioma optic nerve meningioma orbital pseudotumour optic neuritis sarcoidosis leukemia orbital lymphoma metastases perioptic haemorrhage Erdheim-Chester disease juvenile xanthogranuloma ...
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Orbital cystic lesions

Several cystic and cyst-like orbital lesions may be encountered in imaging of the orbits: developmental orbital cysts choristoma: dermoid: commonest benign orbital tumour in childhood  epidermoid teratoma  congenital cystic eye colobomatous cyst acquired abscess haematoma lacrimal gla...
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Orbital infection

Orbital infection can be a commonly encountered entity. It is important to differentiate between orbital and periorbital cellulitis, as this has therapeutic and prognostic implications: periorbital cellulitis (preseptal cellulitis) is limited to the soft tissues anterior to the orbital septum ...
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Orbital inflammatory disease: differential diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of orbital inflammatory diseases (including orbital pseudotumours) can be divided based on their location into: dacryoadenitis of lacrimal glands myositis of extraocular muscles perineuritis of optic nerve orbital cellulitis preseptal postseptal orbital apiciti...
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Orbital mass

An orbital mass carries a relatively wide differential: tumours: lymphoma metastasis lacrimal gland or duct tumours rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit retinoblastoma optic nerve meningioma optic nerve glioma optic nerve schwannoma  neurofibroma developmental orbital cysts 3: choristoma e...
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Orbital vascular lesions

Orbital vascular lesions may be difficult to distinguish on imaging. However, the following conditions have been described: arteriovenous malformation capillary haemangioma cavernous haemangioma lymphangioma / lymphangiovenous malformation / venolymphatic malformation orbital venous malform...
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Oxalosis

Oxalosis results in supersaturation of calcium oxalate in the urine (hyperoxaluria), which in turn results in nephrolithiasis and cortical nephrocalcinosis.  This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.  Pathology Cal...
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Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas, sometimes called glomus tumours, are slow growing tumours arising from non-chromaffin paraganglion cells that are scattered throughout the body from the base of skull to the bladder. Paragangliomas will be discussed separately depending on their location: paragangliomas of the ...
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Paragangliomas of the head and neck

Paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare tumours, representing <0.5% of all head and neck tumours. For a general discussion of the pathology of these tumours please refer to the paraganglioma article. Epidemiology Overall there is a 3:1 female predominance, with two-thirds of cases bei...
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Parotid enlargement

Parotid enlargement has a wide differential given the significant breadth of pathology that can affect the parotid gland. These can be separated by the standard surgical sieve approach into infective, inflammatory, immune, neoplastic, infiltrative and congenital causes. Differential diagnosis ...
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Pedunculated intratracheal mass

A predunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumour, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma haemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation t...
Article

Platybasia

Platybasia is characterised by abnormal flattening of the skull base as defined by measuring the base of skull angle >143º. Clinical presentation Platybasia alone does not usually cause symptoms unless it is associated with basilar invagination.  Pathology Aetiology congenital achondro...
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Pneumoparotid

Pneumoparotid refers to air in the parotid gland and can cause unilateral/bilateral parotid swelling. In severe cases it can be associated with subcutaneous emphysema.  Pathology Any profession or recreation that increases oral positive pressure can cause air to reflux up the parotid ducts int...
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Powers ratio

Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spinola...
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Primary malignancies of the nasopharynx

There are a number of primary malignancies of the nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma): 70% lymphoma (sinonasal lymphoma): 20% other adenocarcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma carcinosarcoma extramedullary plasmacytoma fibrosarcoma melanoma rhabdomyosarcoma sin...
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Proptosis

Proptosis refers to forward protrusion of the globe with respect to the orbit. There are many causes of proptosis which can be divided according to location and it is worth remembering that it is not just orbital disease processes that cause proptosis. Terminology Exophthalmos also describes f...
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Pulsatile exophthalmos

Pulsatile exophthalmos or pulsatile proptosis is a clinical symptom characterized by protrusion and pulsation of the eyeball that can occur due to various causes: caroticocavernous fistulas neurofibromatosis type 1 (with sphenoid wing dysplasia) arteriovenous malformation trauma (orbital roo...
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Radiolucent lesions of the mandible

Lucent lesions of the mandible are not uncommon and may be the result of odontogenic or non-odontogenic processes. Lucency may be conferred by a cystic process (e.g. periapical cyst) or a lytic process (e.g. mandibular metastases). Pathology Aetiology Odontogenic periapical (radicular) cyst ...
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Ranawats line

Ranawats line is the perpendicular distance between centre of the sclerotic ring of C2 and a line drawn along the axis of C1 vertebra Normal value is 17mm in males and 15mm in females. It is deceased in basilar invagination .
Article

Recreational drug use: radiological manisfestations

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
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Salivary gland tumours

Salivary gland tumours are variable in location, origin and malignant potential.  Pathology In general, the ratio of benign to malignant tumours is proportional to the gland size; ie: the parotid gland tends to have benign neoplasm, the submandibular gland 50:50 and the sublingual glands and a...
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Sarcoidosis: head and neck manifestations

Head and neck manifestations of sarcoidosis can have three main forms: orbital involvement: orbital sarcoidosis parotid gland involvement nodal involvement: cervical lymphadenopathy in sarcoidosis
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Sensorineural hearing loss

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) refers to deafness secondary to conditions affecting the inner ear, internal acoustic canal, cerebellopontine angle, or vestibulocochlear nerve. Pathology Conditions that cause SNHL can be divided by location inner ear bony labyrinth otosclerosis (and other...
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Sincipital encephalocoele

Sincipital encephalocoeles are congenital herniations of cerebral parenchyma through a cranial defect. There are three main types 1,2: frontonasal encephalocoele (~50%) - more common in Asia and Latin America4 naso-ethmoidal encephalocoele (30%) - more common in North America4 naso-orbital (n...
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Sinonasal disease

The nasal passage and paranasal sinuses (collectively sinonasal) plays host to a number of diseases and conditions, which can be collectively termed sinonasal disease. One way of classifying separate entities is as follows: inflammatory and infective conditions sinusitis acute sinusitis pott...
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Skull base angle

The skull base angle allows the diagnosis of platybasia and basilar kyphosis. There are several different techniques that may be used on sagital images from MRI or CT. Standard technique Angle formed by: line joining the nasion with the centre of the pituitary fossa line joining the anterio...

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