Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

207 results found
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5-F rule (mnemonic)

The 5-F rule refers to risk factors for the development of cholelithiasis in an event of upper abdominal pain: fair: more prevalent in Caucasian population 1 fat: BMI >30 female gender fertile: one or more children forty: age ≥40 cholelithiasis can occur in young patients with a positiv...
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Abdominal organ echogenicity (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps to remember the relative echogenicity of abdominal organs on ultrasound: Darling Parents So Love Kids Mnemonic From most to least echogenic: D: diaphragm P: pancreas S: spleen L: liver K: kidneys(cortex)
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Abnormal collection of barium anywhere (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used for abnormal collection of barium anywhere in the body : FEDUP Mnemonic F: fistula E: extravasation D: diverticulum U: ulcer P: perforation
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Accessory ossicles of the wrist (mnemonic)

Accessory ossicles of the wrist can be easily recalled with the mnemonic: LOTTEO 1 Mnemonic   L: lunula O: os styloideum (carpal boss) T: (os) triangulare T: (os) trapezium secondarium E: (os) epilunate O: os hamuli proprium
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Acetabular protrusion (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember causes of acetabular protrusion is: PROTrusion Mnemonic P: Paget disease R: rheumatoid arthritis O: osteomalacia Trusion: trauma
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Acro-osteolysis (mnemonic)

The causes of acro-osteolysis can be remembered using the mnemonic: PINCH FO Mnemonic P: psoriasis/pyknodysostosis I: injury, e.g. thermal burn, frost bite N: neuropathy. e.g. diabetes, leprosy C: collagen vascular disease, e.g. scleroderma, Raynaud disease H: hyperparathyroidism F: fami...
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Ageing blood on MRI (mnemonic)

Ageing blood on MRI is dependent on the varying MR signal characteristics of haemorrhagic collections with time and can be very useful in correlating the imaging findings with the clinical picture. However, as it can be complicated to recall the MRI features of ageing blood through the five stag...
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Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the extensor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology Tom, Dick and Harry were the ...
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Anterosuperior mediastinal mass (mnemonic)

The causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: 5 T's Mnemonic T: thymus-see primary tumours of the thymus T: thyroid-see primary tumours of the thyroid T: thoracic aorta-see causes of a dilated thoracic aorta T: terrible lymphoma T: teratoma and ...
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Aortic arch branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the major branches of the aortic arch is: ABC'S ​Mnemonic A: arch of aorta B: brachiocephalic trunk C: left common carotid artery S: left subclavian artery  
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Apical lung disease (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember common apical lung disease is: SET CARP or CARPETS Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia T: tuberculosis C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spondylitis R: radiation pneumonitis P: pneumoconiosis
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Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that corresponds to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: late...
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Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN): STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture) A: alcohol abuse R: radiation osteonecrosis S: sickle cell disease PLASTIC RAGS ...
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Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the axillary artery is: S AL SAP Mnemonic S: Superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: Acromiothoracic artery (from 2nd part) L: Lateral thoracic artery (from 2nd part) S: Subscapular artery (from 3rd part) A: Anterior circumflex humeral art...
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Basilar invagination (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall the cases of basilar invagination is: PF ROACH Mnemonic P: Paget disease of bone F: fibrous dysplasia R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets O: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia A: achondroplasia C: Chiari I and Chiari II, cleidocranial dysostosis H: hyperparathy...
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Behavioural changes in obstructive sleep apnoea (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the behavioural changes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is: APRIL Mnemonic A: aggression P: poor school performance R: restlessness I: irritability L: lack of concentration
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Bladder calcification (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall the common causes of bladder calcification is: SCRITT Mnemonic S: schistosomiasis C: cytotoxic: see radiation and chemotherapy induced cystitis R: radiation: see radiation and chemotherapy induced cystitis I: interstitial cystitis T: tuberculosis T: transition...
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Bladder wall calcification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of bladder wall calcification is: CREST Mnemonic C: cystitis post radiation therapy / chemotherapy / chronic infection R: radiation E: eosinophilic cystitis S: schistosomiasis T: tuberculosis
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Bochdalek hernia features (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the features of a Bochdalek hernias is: BBBBB Mnemonic B: Bochdalek B: big B: back and medial, usually on the left side B: baby B: bad (associated with pulmonary hypoplasia)
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Bony lesions without periostitis or pain (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember bony lesions that have no pain or periostitis is: E FUN Mnemonic E: enchondroma F: fibrous dysplasia U: unicameral bone cyst N: non ossifying fibroma If periostitis or pain is present  (assuming no trauma, which can be a foolhardy assumption), you can exclude E...
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Bony sequestrum (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to help remember common causes of bony sequestrum include: E-FILM LIFE FILE Mnemonics E-FILM E: eosinophilic granuloma  F: fibrosarcoma I: infection (brodie abscess) L: lymphoma (skeletal lymphoma)  M: malignant fibrous histiocytoma or metastasis (especially from breast carci...
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Bowel sacculation (mnemonic)

Mnemonic to remember causes of bowel sacculation include : MISC Mnemonic M: metastasis I: ischemia S: scleroderma C: Crohn’s disease
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Brachial plexus root order (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root order include: Red Tits Don't Come Back Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Where the first letter of each word represents subdivisions of the brachial p...
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Branches of internal carotid artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIP'S COMMA Mnemonic A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian artery (C2) I: inferolateral trunk (C4) P: posterior communicating artery (C7) S: superior hypophyseal artery (C6) C: caroticotympanic artery (...
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Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal...
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Branches of ophthalmic artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the ophthalmic artery is: DR MCLESSI Mnemonic D: dorsal nasal artery R: (central) retinal artery M: muscular artery C: ciliary arteries (long, short and anterior) L: lacrimal artery E: ethmoidal arteries (anterior and posterior) S: supraorbi...
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Branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery is: SOI VU MR PIG (it can be remembered as SO fourth (IV) U MR PIG) Mnemonic S: superior vesical artery O: obturator artery IV: inferior vesical artery U: uterine artery MR: middle rectal arter...
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Branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery include: I Love Sex PILLS G Mnemonic I Love Sex I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery S: superior gluteal artery PILLS G P: posterior division of the internal iliac artery IL: iliolu...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: ABCD Mnemonic A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid
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Breast lesion localisation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember breast lesion localisation when given a set of mammograms (MLO and CC) is: muffins rise and lead falls This can help localise the lesion into the quadrant (e.g. upper, outer) to make ultrasound correlation easier. Mnemonic muffins rise: if the lesion is located me...
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Broad ligament contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the contents of the broad ligament is: BROAD Mnemonic B: bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) R: round ligament O: ovarian ligament A: artefacts (vestigial structures) D: duct (oviduct)
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Bronchial fracture (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the features of a bronchial fracture on a chest radiograph is: PPP Mnemonic P: progressive or P: persistent pneumothorax or P: pneumomediastinum
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Bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (granulomatous disease) K: Kartagene...
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Bronchopulmonary segments (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the bronchopulmonary segments is: A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung) ASIA ALPS (left lung) Mnemonic 'A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm' right upper lobe A: apical segment P: posterior segment A: anterior segment middle lobe L: lateral s...
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Bronchovascular spread (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember pulmonary involvement with bronchovascular spread include: SKILL Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis K: kaposi I: infection: PCP/TB L: lymphoma L: lymphangitic spread
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Calcaneal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for calcaneal lesions include: BIG G Mnemonic B: bone cyst (unicameral) I: intraosseous lipoma G: ganglion (intraosseous) G: giant cell tumour
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Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Carbolic acid poisoning symptoms (mnemonic)

The symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning can be recalled using the mnemonic: 5 Cs Mnemonic C: CNS depression C: constricted pupil C: carboluria (smoky urine) C: cartilage C: corneal deposition
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Cardiophrenic angle mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of a cardiophrenic angle mass is: Fat PAD Mnemonic F: fat P: pericardial cyst A: aneurysm, adenopathy (lymph nodes) D: diaphragmatic hernia
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Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location carpal bones. They usually describe the position of the carpal bones from latera to medial in the proximal row and then the distal row: Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catc...
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Cartilage calcification (mnemonic)

An easy to remember mnemonic for the causes of articular cartilage calcification is: HOGWASH Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis G: gout W: Wilson’s disease A: arthritis S: pseudogout  H: haemochromatosis
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Causes of acute confusion in the elderly (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly include: How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited  Mnemonic H: hypoxia C: constipation D: drug effects D: diabetes D: dehydration I: infection E: electrolyte imbalance
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Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)

A catchy mnemonic for recalling the some of the causes of pancreatitis is: I GET SMASHED Mnemonic I: idiopathic G: gallstones E: ethanol (alcohol) T: trauma S: steroids  M: mumps (and other infections) / malignancy A: autoimmune S: scorpion stings/spider bites H: hyperlipidaemia/hyper...
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Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its aetiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) Cat Mnemonic M: massive pulmonary em...
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Causes of sacroiliitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the symmetric vs. asymmetric causes of sacroiliitis is: PAIR Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis A: ankylosing spondylitis I: inflammatory bowel related R: reactive (e.g. Reiter syndrome) The outside letters P & R (letters are far apart) are the asymmetric cause...
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative position can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, from th...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

 Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more common than a trigeminal schwannoma A: ...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
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Cervical incompetence morphological changes of the internal os (mnemonic)

Sequential morphological ultrasound changes of the endocervical canal with cervical incompetence can be remembered using the mnemonic: Trust Your Vaginal Ultrasound Mnemonic T-shaped (normal internal cervical os) Y-shaped V-shaped  U-shaped Related article cervical incompetence funnelin...
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Charcot joint causes (mnemonic)

The causes of a Charcot joint can be remembered, with a little poetic license, as they (all) start with the letter S. Mnemonic sugar (diabetes) syphilis steroid use syringomyelia spinal cord injury spina bifida scleroderma (leprosy) The features of Charcot arthropathy can be remembered...
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Chest Xray pre-interpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest Xray pre-interpretation include: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA or AP ?, left lateral or right lateral ? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest X-ray P: penetration ( of the Xray ), under-penetration or over-penetration ? I: inspiration, poor...
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Chondrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for chondrocalcinosis include: 3 Cs WHIP A DOG HOGWASH Mnemonics 3 Cs  C: crystals CPPD, sodium urate (gout) C: cations calcium (any cause of hypercalcemia), copper, iron C: cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis, acromegaly, ochronosis) WHIP A DOG W: Wilson disease H: ...
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Conditions with a lower lobe predominance (mnemonic)

 Mnemonics for conditions with a lower lobe predominance in chest radiology include: CIA C: collagen vascular disease I: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A: asbestosis BADAS B: bronchiectasis A: aspiration pneumonia D: drugs; desquamative interstitial pneumonia A: asbestosis S: scleroderm...
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Congenital hypopituitarism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypopituitarism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 P's of cretinism Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue
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Congenital infections (mnemonic)

The group of the most common congenital infections are referred to by the mnemonic TORCH or STORCH. They usually cause mild maternal morbidity, but are related to serious fetal consequences 4. Mnemonic T: toxoplasmosis O: other (e.g. syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19) R: rubella C:...
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Contents of the cubital fossa (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the contents of the cubital fossa are, from medial to lateral: My Brother Throws Rad Parties Mnemonic My Brother Throws Rad Parties M: median nerve B: brachial artery T: tendon of biceps R: radial nerve P: posterior interosseous branch of radial nerve  
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Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis , varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: ...
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Corpus callosum parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is: Remember Genu Before Splenium Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically) 1. Rostrum 2. Genu 3. Body (trunk) 4. Splenium
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Cortical lesions - bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for bony cortical lesions is: MOFOS Mnemonic M: metastasis O: osteomyelitis F: fibrosarcoma O: osteoid osteoma S: stress fracture
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Cortical nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A common mnemonic for cortical nephrocalcinosis is: COAG Mnemonic C: cortical necrosis O: oxalosis A: Alport syndrome G: (chronic) glomerulonephritis See also nephrocalcinosis cortical nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis mnemonic
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Cranial nerves (mnemonic)

There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor or both. Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I through to CN XII: On o...
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CT assessment of the trauma patient (mnemonic)

CT assessment of the trauma patient is beset with the potential for error. Using some standard reporting methodology and remembering review areas reduces error. A useful mnemonic to help is: ABCDEFGHI Mnemonic ABCDEFGHI A: aortic transection B: bronchial fracture C: cord injury (thoracic s...
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Cystic lesions of the spleen (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of cystic lesions in the spleen is: TEAM Mnemonic T: trauma E: echinococcal A: abscess M: metastasis
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragm is: I ate (8) 10 eggs at 12 Mnemonic I ate (8): inferior vena cava at T8 10 eggs: (o)esophagus at T10 at 12: aorta at T12
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Diaphyseal lesions (mnemonic)

A list of diaphyseal lesions can be remembered using the mnemonic: CEMENT Mnemonic C: bone cysts E: enchondroma/ewing sarcoma M: bone metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma N: non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) T: TB/osteomyelitis
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Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Diffuse bony sclerosis has many causes. Useful mnemonics for remembering them include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1   Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukaemia M: myelofibrosi...
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Eggshell calcification in thorax and mediastinum (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for major causes of eggshell calcification in the thorax and mediastinum is:  A Silly Cool Sergeant Likes His Tubercular Blast Mnemonic A: amyloidosis S: silicosis C: coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) S: sarcoidosis L: lymphoma: (postirradiation Hodgkin disease) H: hi...
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Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules E: epididymis V: vas deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
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Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C: capitellum R: radial head I: internal epicondyle T: trochlea O: olecranon E: external epicon...
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Emergency CT head (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic which is used to read an emergency head CT scan is: Blood Can Be Very Bad Mnemonic Using a systematic approach will help to ensure that significant neuropathology will not be missed. B: blood look for epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intra...
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Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic Kiss: Kaposi sarcoma My: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobro...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the Erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I:  Iliocostalis L: Longissimus S: Spinalis
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: haemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher disease Lead G...
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External carotid artery branches (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the external carotid artery branches abound. They include some colourful examples such as: Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students Some Anatomists Like F-ing, Others Prefer S&M Some Angry Ladies Fight...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular vein) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to  remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOW Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rect...
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue (mnemonic)

 The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic: Paris St Germain's Hour Mnemonics Paris St. Germain's Hour P: palatoglossus S: styloglossus G: genioglossus H: hyoglossus
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Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zulus Bit My Cat Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
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Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the segments of the facial nerve is: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve Mnemonic I: intracranial (cisternal)/intracanalicular L:...
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Features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonic: 6 Ds of Charcot joint Mnemonic increased density (subchondral sclerosis) destruction debris (intra-articular loose bodies) dislocation distention disorganisation The causes of Charcot arthrop...
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Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
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Femoral triangle contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the order of the femoral vessels and nerve as they emerge from beneath the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle are: NAVY NAVEL Mnemonic NAVY From lateral to medial: N: femoral nerve A: femoral artery V: femoral vein Y: "Y-fronts" (i.e. the midline) ...
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Finger tip lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for finger tip lesions: GEMS Mnemonic G: glomus tumor  E: epidermoid/enchondroma/subungual exostosis  M: metastasis (lung almost exclusively) S: sarcoidosis
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Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions (mnemonic)

There is a handy mnemonic for fluid-fluid levels of bone lesions on MRI: GOATS CSF Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour O: osteoblastoma A: aneurysmal bone cyst T: telangiectatic osteosarcoma S: sarcomas C: chondroblastoma S: solitary bone cyst F: fibroxanthoma
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Focal pulmonary opacity (mnemonic)

Causes of focal pulmonary opacities on a CXR can be remembered using the rather crude mnemonic: 4 Fs Mnemonic F: 'fection (pulmonary infection) F: 'farction (pulmonary infarction) F: fluid (pulmonary oedema) F: f***ed (lung cancer)
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Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is : HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed NOF O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing’s sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or Infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
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Foramen ovale contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is: OVALE Mnemonic O: otic ganglion (inferior) V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of trigeminal nerve) A: accessory meningeal artery L: lesser petrosal nerve E: emissary veins
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Galeazzi and Monteggia fracture-dislocations (mnemonic)

There are several mnemonics for the difference between a Galeazzi and a Monteggia fracture-dislocation: GRIMUS MUGR (pronounced mugger) FROG GRUesome MURder It is useful to note that it is the head of the non-fractured bone that is dislocated. Mnemonics GRIMUS GRIMUS helps to remember wh...
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Generalised colitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember causes of generalised colitis is I3NR Mnemonic I3NR I: infectious colitis e.g. E. coli, CMV I: inflammatory, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis I: ischaemic colitis N: neoplastic, e.g. lymphoma R: radiation colitis
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Germ cell tumours (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for differential diagnosis for germ cell tumours is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour)
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Gracile bones (mnemonic)

The causes of gracile bones can be recalled with the following mnemonic: Mnemonic NIMROD N: neurofibromatosis I: immobilisation/paralysis M: muscular dystrophy R: rheumatoid arthritis (juvenile RA) O: osteogenesis imperfecta D: dysplasia, e.g. Marfan syndrome, homocysteinuria
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Gynaecomastia causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for the causes of gynaecomastia: CODES Mnemonic C: cirrhosis O: obesity D: digitalis E: estrogen S: spironolactone
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Haemorrhagic metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma

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