Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

27 results found
Article

Ageing blood on MRI (mnemonic)

Ageing blood on MRI is dependent on the varying MR signal characteristics of haemorrhagic collections with time and can be very useful in correlating the imaging findings with the clinical picture. However, as it can be complicated to recall the MRI features of ageing blood through the five stag...
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Basilar invagination (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall the cases of basilar invagination is: PF ROACH Mnemonic P: Paget disease of bone F: fibrous dysplasia R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets O: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia A: achondroplasia C: Chiari I and Chiari II, cleidocranial dysostosis H: hyperparathy...
Article

Brachial plexus root order (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root order include: Red Tits Don't Come Back Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Where the first letter of each word represents subdivisions of the brachial p...
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Causes of acute confusion in the elderly (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly include: How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited  Mnemonic H: hypoxia C: constipation D: drug effects D: diabetes D: dehydration I: infection E: electrolyte imbalance
Article

Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative position can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, from th...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

 Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more common than a trigeminal schwannoma A: ...
Article

Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
Article

Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis , varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: ...
Article

Corpus callosum parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is: Remember Genu Before Splenium Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically) 1. Rostrum 2. Genu 3. Body (trunk) 4. Splenium
Article

Cranial nerves (mnemonic)

There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor or both. Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I through to CN XII: On o...
Article

Emergency CT head (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic which is used to read an emergency head CT scan is: Blood Can Be Very Bad Mnemonic Using a systematic approach will help to ensure that significant neuropathology will not be missed. B: blood look for epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intra...
Article

Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to  remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOW Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rect...
Article

Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zulus Bit My Cat Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
Article

Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the segments of the facial nerve is: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve Mnemonic I: intracranial (cisternal)/intracanalicular L:...
Article

Haemorrhagic metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
Article

HOT Pepper (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
Article

Internal auditory canal nerves (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is: Seven up coke down Anatomy Four nerves pass through the IAC: facial nerve (CN VII) three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc) superior vestibular ne...
Article

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is: MISME Mnemonic M: multiple I: inherited S: schwannomas M: meningiomas and E: ependymomas In fact, labelling this disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 is a misnomer, because neurofibromas are not a part of its constellation of abnorma...
Article

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (mnenomic)

The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic: wet: urinary incontinence wacky: dementia (memory disturbance) wobbly: gait disturbance
Article

Paediatric posterior fossa tumours (mnemonic)

Tumours of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic: BEAM Mnemonic The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common. B: brainstem glioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%) M: medulloblastoma
Article

Pituitary region masses (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differential for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1-2 Mnemonic S: sarcoid, sellar tumour (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), chordoma H: hypothal...
Article

Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can remembered by the following useful mnemonic. HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal  P: posterior inferior cerebellar A: anterior choroidal
Article

Sacral plexus branches (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is: Six Ps - As all of the nerves start with the letter P. SLIP, DSP - if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension). Mnemonic Six Ps nerve to piriformis (S1-S2) perforating cu...
Article

Superior orbital fissure nerves (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the nerves passing though the superior orbital fissure include: Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult Live Free To See No Insult At All Mnemonics Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  The order of the nerves passing t...
Article

T2 hyperintense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is: LINT Mnemonic L: lymphoma I: ischaemia N: neurodegenerative conditions T: toxins See also For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article. 
Article

T2 hypointense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic: ChOMP Mnemonic ChOMP Ch: childhood hypoxia O: old age M: multiple sclerosis P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
Article

Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of skull foramen that the branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (frontal branch of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxilary branch of trigeminal nerve) only: fora...

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