Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

28 results found
Article

Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that corresponds to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: late...
Article

Behavioural changes in obstructive sleep apnoea (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the behavioural changes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is: APRIL Mnemonic A: aggression P: poor school performance R: restlessness I: irritability L: lack of concentration
Article

Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Congenital hypopituitarism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypopituitarism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 P's of cretinism Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue
Article

External carotid artery branches (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the external carotid artery branches abound. They include some colourful examples such as: Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students Some Anatomists Like F-ing, Others Prefer S&M Some Angry Ladies Fight...
Article

Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to  remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOW Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rect...
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue (mnemonic)

 The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic: Paris St Germain's Hour Mnemonics Paris St. Germain's Hour P: palatoglossus S: styloglossus G: genioglossus H: hyoglossus
Article

Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zulus Bit My Cat Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
Article

Foramen ovale contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is: OVALE Mnemonic O: otic ganglion (inferior) V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of trigeminal nerve) A: accessory meningeal artery L: lesser petrosal nerve E: emissary veins
Article

Hyoid bone: muscle attachments (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscle attachments of the hyoid bone. The first sentence is for six muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for 3 muscles attaching inferiorly. The both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Christopher, He Didn't Screw Girls Much. That's Obv...
Article

Innervation of the muscles of the middle ear (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember innervation of the muscles of the middle ear is: S for Stapedius T for Tensor Tympani Mnemonic S: Stapedius is supplied by a branch of the facial nerve- the Seventh cranial nerve. It is also the Smallest muscle in the body, and inserts onto the neck of Stapes T...
Article

Internal auditory canal nerves (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is: Seven up coke down Anatomy Four nerves pass through the IAC: facial nerve (CN VII) three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc) superior vestibular ne...
Article

Internal jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal jugular vein is: Medical Schools Let Fun People In Mnemonic From inferior to superior: M: middle thyroid vein S: superior thyroid vein L: lingual vein F: facial vein P: pharyngeal vein I: inferior petrosal sinus
Article

Layers of the scalp (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the layers of the scalp is: SCALP This is particularly helpful when considering the location of a scalp haematoma. Mnemonic S: skin C: connective tissue A: (galea) aponeurosis L: loose connective tissue P: periosteum
Article

Maxillary artery

The (internal) maxillary artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.  Origin and course The maxillary artery's origin is behind the neck of the mandible, and is at first imbedded in the substance of the parotid gland. From there it passes forward between t...
Article

Maxillary artery branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is: DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous Mnemonic D: deep auricular artery A: anterior tympanic artery M: middle meningeal artery I: inferior alveolar artery A: accessory meningeal ar...
Article

Medial wall of the orbit (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the bones forming the medial wall of the orbit is: My Little Eye Sits (in the orbit) Mnemonic M: maxilla (frontal process) L: lacrimal E: ethmoid S: sphenoid (body)
Article

Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugarwater Lemonade or Say Nothing  Mnemonic S: saracoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy or say N: non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma (NHL)
Article

Nasopharyngeal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of nasopharyngeal masses is: SAIL Mnemonic S: squamous cell carcinoma A: antrachoanal polyp I: inverted papilloma L: lethal midline granuloma
Article

Nystagmus (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) results ...
Article

Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: Hiatus semilunaris I: Infundibulum E: Ethmoidal bulla M: Maxillary ostium U: Uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
Article

Paediatric posterior fossa tumours (mnemonic)

Tumours of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic: BEAM Mnemonic The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common. B: brainstem glioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%) M: medulloblastoma
Article

Petrous temporal bone fracture: complications (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the complications of transverse and longitudinal petrous temporal bone fractures is: listen carefully to something funny Mnemonic listen carefully = longitudinal / conductive hearing loss to something funny = transverse / sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve...
Article

Pituitary region masses (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differential for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1-2 Mnemonic S: sarcoid, sellar tumour (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), chordoma H: hypothal...
Article

Skull bones (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the six skull bones is: STEP OF 6 Mnemonic S: sphenoid T: temporal E: ethmoid P: parietal O: occipital F: frontal 6: number of skull bones
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Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. hematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ext...
Article

Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma  T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
Article

Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of skull foramen that the branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (frontal branch of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxilary branch of trigeminal nerve) only: fora...

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