Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

185 results found
Article

Absent bow tie sign

The absent bow tie sign represents the loss of the normal appearance of the menisci on parasagittal MRI images, and is suggestive of meniscal injury. Normally the medal and lateral menisci appear as low signal bow-tie-shaped structures between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaux. As the no...
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Andersson lesion

Andersson lesions refer to inflammatory involvement of the intervertebral discs by spondyloarthritis. Epidemiology Rheumatic spondylodiscitis is a non-infectious condition that has been shown to occur in about 8% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, as detected at radiography. Pathology ...
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Ankle tear drop sign

Ankle tear drop sign is one of the radiological signs of an ankle joint effusion. It represents the presence of fluid in the inferior part of anterior compartment of ankle. Pathology Aetiology trauma gout rheumatoid arthritis synovitis infectious arthritis Radiographic appearance Plain ...
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Anteater nose sign

The anteater nose sign refers to an anterior tubular prolongation of the superior calcaneus which approaches or overlaps the navicular on a lateral radiograph of the foot. This fancifully resembles the nose of an anteater and is an indication of calcaneonavicular coalition 1-2.  History and ety...
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Anterior tibial translocation sign

The anterior tibial translocation sign or anterior drawer sign (also known as anterior translation of tibia) is seen in cases of complete rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament, and refers to anterior translocation (anterior tibial subluxation) of the tibia relative to the femur of more than ...
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Apple core sign - femur

The apple core sign has been used to describe the circumferential erosion of the femoral neck seen in synovial chondromatosis. Although this is the most common process that may lead to an apple core erosion of the femoral neck, this has also been observed with: pigmented villonodular synovitis ...
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Arcuate sign

The arcuate sign is often a subtle but important finding on knee x-rays and represents an avulsion fracture of the proximal fibula at the site of insertion of the arcuate ligament complex, and is usually associated with cruciate ligament injury (~90% of cases) 2. The fracture fragment is attache...
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Baastrup syndrome

Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion and aggravated by extension.  Epidemiology It tend...
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Bamboo spine

Bamboo spine is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis that occurs as a result of vertebral body fusion by marginal syndesmophytes. It is often accompanied by fusion of the posterior vertebral elements as well.  A bamboo spine typically involves the thoracolumbar and or lumbosacr...
Article

Bayonet deformity

Bayonet deformity is a term used to describe the shape of wrist in certain conditions: Madelung deformity hereditary multiple exostosis with pseudo-Madelung deformity retarded bone growth of the distal ulna with outward bowing of radius with distal radioulnar joint subluxation Colles fracture
Article

Blade of grass sign

The blade of grass sign (also called the candle flame sign) refers to the lucent leading edge in a long bone seen during the lytic phase of Paget disease of bone.  The blade of grass sign is characteristic of Paget disease of bone. This is akin to osteoporosis circumscripta cranii seen in the s...
Article

Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (in infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) sickle cell disease / thalassaemia autosomal dominant osteopet...
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Boomerang sign: in horizontal meniscal flap tear

The boomerang sign is defined as a small displaced flap from longitudinal horizontal type medial meniscal tear which is displaced inferiorly into the medial meniscotibial recess. The imaging diagnosis of this type of tear is crucial because it is normally hidden from surgeons eye during routine ...
Article

Bouchard nodes

Bouchard nodes are a clinical sign relating to bony nodules of the the proximal interphalangeal joints, and are much less common than Heberden nodes. They generally (but not always) correspond to palpable osteophytes. Clinical presentation They are sometimes painful, and are typically associat...
Article

Boutonniere deformity

Boutonniere deformity is one of the musculoskeletal manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis in the hand with: flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints extension of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints  The buttonhole appears in the tendon which splays open. The appea...
Article

Bright rim sign in anterior-talofibular ligament injury

The bright rim sign in anterior-talofibular ligament injury refers to a sign seen on MRI. A cortical defect with a bright dot-like or curvilinear high-signal-intensity, usually in fibular attachment site, is seen on MRI. It has been described an indicator of ATFL injury 1. See also bright rim ...
Article

Bull's eye sign: general

There are many bull's eye signs, also referred to as target signs: red bone marrow located in shaft of long bone with central yellow marrow on MRI peripheral plexiform neurofibromas on MRI intussusception: see target sign of intussusception choledocholithiasis: see target sign of choledochol...
Article

Bullet shaped vertebra

Bullet shaped vertebra refers to the anterior beaking of the vertebral body. It is seen in the following conditions: mucopolysaccharidosis (Morquio disease, Hurler disease) achondroplasia  congenital hypothyroidism  See also weapons and munitions inspired signs
Article

Butterfly vertebra

Butterfly vertebra is a type of vertebral anomaly that results from the failure of fusion of the lateral halves of the vertebral body because of persistent notochordal tissue between them. Pathology Associations an anterior spina bifida, with or without an anterior meninogocoele can be part ...
Article

Button sequestrum

A button sequestrum is a small sequestrum of devascularised bone surrounded by lucency. Although classically described in osteomyelitis and eosinophilic granuloma it is also occasionally seen in fibrosarcoma and lymphoma. Differential diagnoses osteoid osteoma tuberculous osteitis radiatio...
Article

C sign

The C sign is an important radiological sign which may be seen on a lateral radiograph of ankle in those with a  tarsal coalition (talocalcaneal coalition).  Radiographic appearance A continuous C-shaped arc is seen on a lateral ankle radiograph which is formed by the medial outline of the tal...
Article

Cartilage interface sign

Cartilage interface sign, also referred as "double cortex sign", refers to the sonographic presence of a thin markedly hyperechoic line at the interface between the normally hypoechoic hyaline articular cartilage of the humeral head and an abnormally hypoechoic supraspinatus tendon, du...
Article

Celery stalk metaphysis

Celery stalk metaphysis refers to a plain film appearance of the metaphyses in a number of conditions characterised by longitudinally aligned linear bands of sclerosis. They are seen in: congenital infections congenital rubella congenital syphilis congenital CMV ost...
Article

Celery stalk sign (ACL)

The celery stalk sign is a term given to the appearance of the anterior cruciate ligament which has undergone mucoid degeneration and  has been likened to that of a celery stalk. Its low signal longitudinal fibers are separated from each other by higher signal mucinous material, best seen on T2 ...
Article

Champagne glass pelvis

The champagne glass pelvis is a helpful sign in achondroplasia which the iliac blades are flattened, giving rise to a pelvic inlet and resembles a champagne glass. The acetabular angles are increased, and the sacrosciatic notch is small.
Article

Cheerio sign - SLAP III

The Cheerio sign has been described as a sign seen in a type III superior labral anterior posterior tear (SLAP lesion) of the glenoid labrum. In the cheerio sign, a rounded core of soft tissue is surrounded by a rim of contrast material and air.  SLAP type III is the bucket handle tear of the ...
Article

Cloaca - osteomyelitis

A cloaca (pl. cloacae/cloacas) can be found in chronic osteomyelitis. The cloaca is an opening in a involucrum which allows drainage of purulent and necrotic material out of the dead bone. If the tract extends to the skin surface, the portion extending beyond the involucrum to the skin surface ...
Article

Cockade sign

The cockade sign is a classic appearance of an intraosseous lipoma of the calcaneus which presents as a well-defined lytic lesion with a central calcification resembling a cockade.  It is named after a cockade, which is a badge, usually in the form of a rosette or knot, and generally worn on th...
Article

Codman triangle periosteal reaction

Codman triangle is a type of periosteal reaction seen with aggressive bone lesions. With aggressive lesions, the periosteum does not have time to ossify with shells of new bone (e.g. as seen in single layer and mulitlayered periosteal reaction), so only the edge of the raised periosteum will oss...
Article

Cookie bite skeletal metastases

Cookie bite metastases are characterised by a small focal eccentric lytic external cortex destruction in long tubular bones. This type destruction is typically described for metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma, however they can also occur with other tumours.
Article

Copper beaten skull

Copper beaten skull, also known as beaten brass skull, refers to the prominence of convolutional markings (gyral impressions on the inner table of the skull) seen throughout the skull vault. Demographics and clinical presentation The appearance of copper beaten skull is associated with raised ...
Article

Corduroy sign

The corduroy sign refers to a vertically oriented, thickened trabeculations seen in intraosseous haemangiomas of the spine. It is caused by replacement of the normal cancellous bone by thickened vertical trabeculae surrounded by fat marrow or vascular lacunae in intraosseous haemangiomas 2. Se...
Article

Cotton wool appearance of bone

The cotton wool appearance is a plain film sign of Paget disease and results from thickened, disorganized trabeculae which lead to areas of sclerosis in a previously lucent area of bone, typically the skull. These sclerotic patches are poorly defined and fluffy. See also Other Paget disease re...
Article

Coxa magna

Coxa magna is the asymmetrical, circumferential enlargement and deformation of the femoral head and neck. Definitions in the literature vary but enlargement with asymmetry >10% in size is a reasonable cut-off for diagnosis 1.  Pathology Aetiology Legg-Calve-Perthes disease transient synov...
Article

Coxa profunda

Coxa profunda refers to a deep acetabular socket. On pelvis x-rays it is seen as the acetabular fossa being medial to the ilioischial line. It should be differentiated from protrusio acetabuli, where the femoral head is seen additionally medial to the ilioischial line. Coxa profunda is much more...
Article

Coxa valga

Coxa valga describes a deformity of the hip where there is increased angle between the femoral neck and femoral shaft.  Pathology Coxa valga is often associated with shallow acetabular angles and femoral head subluxation.  Aetiology bilateral neuromuscular disorders, e.g. cerebral palsy of...
Article

Craniotabes

Craniotabes is defined as a softening of the skull bones that may be normally present in newborns.    
Article

Crescent sign of avascular necrosis

The crescent sign of avascular necrosis is seen on conventional radiographs, and refers to a linear area of subchondral lucency seen most frequently in the anterolateral aspect of the proximal femoral head (which is optimally depicted on the frog-leg radiographic view). It indicates imminent art...
Article

Crossing sign

The crossing sign is seen on true lateral plain radiographs of the knee when the line of the trochlear groove crosses the anterior border of one of the condyle trochlea. it is a predictor of trochlear dysplasia. Trochlear dysplasia has been linked to recurrent patellar dislocation1,2,4. The cros...
Article

Curtain sign

The curtain sign (or draped curtain sign) in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of a vertebral body mass that extends to the anterior epidural space. The posterior longitudinal ligament is strongly attached to the posterior vertebral body cortex in the midline and is more loosely attached la...
Article

Cyclops lesion

The cyclops lesion, also known as localised anterior arthrofibrosis, is a painful anterior knee mass that arise as a complication of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Epidemiology Cyclops lesions occur with an estimated frequency of ~5% (range 1-9.8%) of patients following ACL r...
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Dagger sign

The dagger sign is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis as a single central radiodense line on frontal radiographs related to ossification of supraspinous and interspinous ligaments.
Article

Dinner fork deformity

A dinner fork deformity, also known as a bayonet deformity, occurs as the result of a malunited distal radial fracture, usually a Colles fracture. The distal fragment is dorsally angulated, displaced and often also impacted. The term is descriptive, as the lateral view of the wrist is similar to...
Article

Disc herniation

Disc herniation refers to displacement of intervertebral disc material beyond the normal confines of the disc, but involving less than 25% of the circumference (to distinguish it from a disc bulge. A herniation may contain nucleus pulposus, vertebral endplate cartilage, apophyseal bone/osteophyt...
Article

Disproportionate posterior horn sign

The disproportionate posterior horn sign is a feature described with a mensical tear having a posteriorly flipped fragment. Pathology Bucket handle tears of meniscus of the knee joint constitute 10% of meniscal tears. They consist of a vertical or longitudinal tears (which includes vertical-ob...
Article

Distal intersection syndrome

The distal intersection syndrome relates to tenosynovitis of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon, where it crosses the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) tendons1. It is distinct from intersection syndrome which occurs more proximally in the forearm at the intersection...
Article

Dot in a circle sign

Dot in a circle sign is an MRI sign for maduromycosis or mycetoma. It is described as a classic appearance on T2 weighted images which show a small rounded hyperintensity (representing granulation tissue), surrounded by a low signal intensity rim (representing fibrous septa) with a hypointense ...
Article

Double axillary pouch sign

The double axillary pouch sign is a collection of fluid between a torn anteroinferior glenoid labrum and the glenoid rim, giving the appearance of a second axillary pouch. The sign is seen best with MR arthrography on the coronal view, and is considered by some a very specific sign for an anter...
Article

Double contour cartilage line

Double contour cartilage line is a sign in ultrasonography of the gout arthropathy which is characterised by an echogenic line on the outer surface of the joint cartilage parallel to the subchondral bone secondary to deposition of monosodium urate crystals on the surface of hyaline articular car...
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Double contour sign of trochlear dysplasia

The double contour sign is a helpful radiologic sign which is seen on true lateral plain radiographs of  trochlear dysplasia.  A double line at anterior aspect of condyles that seen if medial condyle is hypoplastic. See also crossing sign of trochlear dysplasia
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Double delta sign

The double delta sign is a feature that has been described in a bucket handle meniscal tear when the inner meniscal fragment flipped anteriorly adjacent to the anterior horn of the donor site so refers as displaced bucket handle tear. The original location of the posterior horn remains empty giv...
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Double density sign of osteoid osteoma

The double density sign, also sometimes clumsily referred to as the hotter spot within hot area sign, is a bone scan sign of an osteoid osteoma. It refers to a central focus of intense uptake (the nidus) within a surrounding lower, but nonetheless increased uptake, rim. See also double densit...
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Double disc sign

Thickening of the insertion of the lateral pterygoid muscle can mimic an anterior displaced TMJ disc. When both thickening of the inferior belly insertion and an anteriorly displaced disc are present, the two structures parallel each other; the so called "double disc" sign.
Article

Double line sign

The double line sign is an MRI finding seen at the periphery of a region of osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis, bone infarct). It is best seen on T2 weighted sequences and consists of an inner bright T2 line representing granulation tissue and an outer dark line representing sclerotic bone. This ...
Article

Double PCL sign

The double PCL sign appears on sagittal MRI images of the knee when a bucket-handle tear of a meniscus (medial meniscus in 80% of cases) flips towards the centre of the joint so that it comes to lie anteroinferior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) mimicking a second smaller PCL. A double...
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Doughnut sign on bone scan

The doughnut sign refers to bone scan pattern which demonstrate increased uptake peripherally with a photopenic center. This appearance may be seen in a number of cystic lesions include: aneurysmal bone cyst giant cell tumour simple bone cyst The doughnut sign is a nonspecific sign, and also...
Article

Dripping candle wax sign

Dripping candle wax sign, also known as flowing candle wax appearance, describes the appearance of sclerotic cortical thickening in melorheostosis. The irregular cortical hyperostosis typically occurs on one side of the involved bone and undulates along much like melted wax down a candle. Patho...
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Dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours

Dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours refers to a tumour which has both a component within the canal and a component in the paravertebral space linked by tumour traversing the neural exit foramen. The appearance can be seen in: spinal nerve sheath tumours spinal schwannoma (90%) 1 spinal neu...
Article

Elbow joint effusion

Recognising an elbow joint effusion on lateral radiographs is an essential radiology skill. While the fluid itself is not discretely seen because it is the same density as the surrounding muscles, an effusion can be inferred by observing displacement of the anterior and / or posterior fat pads s...
Article

Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner margin of cortical bones, typically seen in long bones, due to slow growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to benign aetiology. In fact...
Article

Erlenmeyer flask deformity

An Erlenmeyer flask deformity refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph where there is relative constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis. Causes include marrow infiltration/expansion Gaucher disease associated osteopenia with avascular necrosis ...
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Fallen fragment sign

The fallen fragment sign refers to the presence of a bone fracture fragment resting dependently in a cystic bone lesion. This finding is said to be pathognomonic for a simple (unicameral) bone cyst following a pathological fracture. The finding exists because a simple bone cyst is fluid filled,...
Article

Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign is the linear extension along the fascia/muscular aponeurosis from a deeper tumor. Radiographic features It appears as a tail and is best appreciated on MRI, classically seen in desmoid tumours as T2 hypointense bands that progressively enhance particularly on delayed pha...
Article

Fascicular sign

Fascicular sign is a finding on T2-weighted MRI images that suggests a lesion of neurogenic origin. It is characterised by multiple small ring-like structures with peripheral hyperintensity representing the fascicular bundles within the nerves. It is found in various neurogenic tumours, includi...
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FBI sign

The FBI sign is an acronym referring to the components that form a lipohaemarthrosis. It stands for: fat blood interface
Article

Finger clubbing

Finger clubbing, also called "drumstick fingers", is a common clinical sign in patients with heart or lung disease. The term is used to describe an enlargement of the distal phalanges of the fingers, giving them a drumstick or club-like appearance.  Pathology The underlying pathogene...
Article

Fleck sign

The fleck sign is a small bony fragment seen in the Lisfranc space (between the base of the 1st and 2nd metatarsal) associated with avulsion of Lisfranc's ligament (at the base of the 2nd metatarsal). It is a very subtle, but important finding, since it predisposes to Lisfranc injury.
Article

Fluid sign in acute vertebral collapse

The fluid sign is one of the radiological features of osteoporotic fractures, and can be helpful in distinguishing them from metastatic vertebral fractures, as it is seen more often in osteoporotic fractures and is rarely seen in metastatic fractures 1. It is not as helpful as identifying a para...
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Fragment-in-notch sign

The fragment-in-notch sign is closely related to, can be thought of as a failed, double PCL sign, in so far as it represents a meniscal fragment lying in the intercondylar notch, but not paralleling the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).  Although both signs are most frequently seen in the sett...
Article

Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the  five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
Article

Gamekeeper thumb

Gamekeeper thumb is essentially synonymous with skier thumb, although the latter has a more acute injury connotation. It is an avulsion or rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb.  Epidemiology The repetitive breaking-of-necks of small game (rabbits and such) resulted in ch...
Article

Genu recurvatum

Genu recurvatum describes the malalignment or deformity of the knee joint with extension beyond neutral (i.e. hyperextension).  Pathology Genu recurvatum can be associated with subluxation or dislocation of the knee joint.  Aetiology congenital arthrogryposis multiplex congenita congenital...
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Geographic skull

A geographic skull is a radiographic appearance which is seen at eosinophilic granuloma (EG) and characterized by destructive lytic bone lesion, edges of which may be bevelled, scalloped or confluent.
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Geyser sign - shoulder

The geyser sign may occur in some cases of long-standing rotator cuff tear and advanced degenerative change of the shoulder.  Clinical presentation A patient with degenerative change in the shoulder may present with a pseudotumour above the AC joint. Pathology Chronic rotator cuff degenerati...
Article

Ghost meniscus

The term "ghost meniscus", also known as empty meniscus sign, refers to a large radial tear that has completely transected the meniscus or, alternatively, previous meniscectomy. Radiographic features MRI On MRI knee when the slice plane is exactly in line with the meniscal tear this...
Article

Ghost sign

Ghost sign is a feature that has been described in Clay shoveler fracture as can be seen on the AP projection of a cervical spine radiograph. It is caused by the appearance of a "double spinous process" on C6 or C7 resulting from caudal displacement of the avulsed spinous process fragm...
Article

Ghost vertebra

Ghost vertebra is a sign that can refer to a varied abnormal radiographic appearance of the vertebrae due to a number of different entities: thorotrast administration: bone within a bone appearance due to temporary growth arrest 1 osteopaenia: such loss of trabecular pattern that the vertebra ...
Article

Ginkgo leaf sign - chest x-ray

The ginkgo leaf sign of the chest, also referred as the ginkgo leaf sign of subcutaneous emphysema, is a radiograph appearance which is seen at extensive subcutaneous emphysema of the chest wall. Air outlines the fibers of the pectoralis major muscle and creates a branching pattern that resemble...
Article

Girdlestone procedure

The Girdlestone procedure (also known as a femoral head ostectomy or Girdlestone resection arthroplasty) is an excision arthroplasty of the hip. The procedure inevitably results in limb shortening. Indications  peri-prosthetic infection aseptic loosening recurrent dislocation failed interna...
Article

Glenoid labrum ovoid mass sign

The glenoid labrum ovoid mass (GLOM) sign (seen on MRI) is useful when a torn anterior glenoid labrum retracts superiorly.  Seen typically on a T2 axial image through the glenohumeral joint as a low signal ovoid mass anterior to the glenoid labrum.  Sometimes this can be the only sign of a torn...
Article

Gull wing appearance

The Gull-wing appearance  (also known as seagull erosions) is seen in erosive osteoarthritis, typically on posteroanterior (PA) radiographs. The combination of cartilage space loss, central subchondral erosions, and marginal osteophyte proliferation results in a gull-wing appearance.
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebra (also known as Lincoln log vertebra) are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1)3. It may occasionally b...
Article

Hair on end sign

The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance on a skull which results from a periosteal reaction manifesting as perpendicular trabeculations interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault. It is classically described with plain skull radiographs although can als...
Article

Harlequin eye deformity

The harlequin eye deformity may seen in unilateral (plagiocephaly) or bilateral (brachycephaly) coronal suture synostosis, and refers to the elevation of the superolateral corner of the orbit.
Article

Hatchet sign of ankylosing spondylitis

Hatchet sign refers to the limited erosion of the lateral aspect of humeral head that produces a  hatchet shaped deformity. This finding is typically associated with ankylosing spondylitis. In the absence of osteoporosis and presence of sclerosis this sign helps to differentiate it from rheumat...
Article

Hawkins sign

Hawkins sign describes subchondral lucency of the talar dome that occurs secondary to subchondral atrophy 6-8 weeks after a talar neck fracture 1. This indicates that there is sufficient vascularity in the talus, and is therefore unlikely to develop avascular necrosis later 2,3. Disruption of ...
Article

Heel pad sign

Increased heel pad thickness, also known as the heel pad sign, is seen in a number of conditions and relates to an increase in the soft-tissue thickness of the heel pad on lateral ankle radiographs.   The heel pad should normally be < 21mm. However, in certain situations, this is increased: ...
Article

Higoumenakis sign

Higoumenakis sign is the unilateral enlargement of the sternal end of the clavicle in patients with late congenital syphilis. Pathology Treponema pallidum becomes readily localized in the lymphatic spaces and may remain in the connective tissues without manifestation in childhood. Through mech...
Article

Hill-Sachs lesion

Hill-Sachs lesions are a posterolateral humeral head compression fracture, typically secondary to recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations, as the humeral head comes to rest against the anteroinferior part of the glenoid. It is often associated with a Bankart lesion of the glenoid. Pathology I...
Article

Hitchhiker thumb deformity

Hitchhiker thumb deformity refers to: flexion of the MCP and extension of distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb It is similar to how a person would normally angulate and hold out the thumb with the intension to hitchhike. It is one of the musculoskeletal manifestations of rheumatoid arthr...
Article

Hole within a hole sign

The hole within a hole sign or (bevelled edge sign) is described with patient with eosinophilic granulomas. A bevelled edge of the defects indicates destruction of the two tables (e.g. of the skull) to a differing degree (more at the inner table), resulting in a formation of two different lucent...
Article

Honda sign

The Honda sign (H sign / H pattern) is a term used to describe the appearances bilateral sacral insufficiency fractures on a radioisotope bone scan. Radiographic features Sacral insufficiency fractures are usually vertically through the sacral ala, paralleling the sacroiliac joint, often with ...
Article

Howship-Romberg sign

Howship-Romberg sign refers to obturator nerve neuropathy due to compression of it, by an obturator hernia. Patients present with pain and paresthesia along the inner aspect of the thigh, down to the knee.

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