Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

85 results found
Article

Anal cancer staging

The accepted TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows 1: Primary tumour (T) TX: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension T3: tumour >5 ...
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Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging classification

The Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging classification is a set of criteria to guide management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification takes the following variables into account 1,2: performance status Child-Pugh score tumour size multiple tumours vasc...
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Binet staging system for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

The Binet staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It classifies CLL according to the number of lymphoid tissues that are involved (i.e. the spleen and the lymph nodes of the neck, groin, and underarms), as well as ...
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Breast cancer staging

Breast cancer staging uses the TNM staging system and then into stage groupings. Classification TNM staging Primary tumour (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1 T1a: 0.1-0.5 cm T1b: 0.5-1.0 cm T1c: 1.0- 2.0 cm T2: 2-5 cm ...
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Cancer staging list

Cancer staging using a number of systems to help direct treatment and aid prognosis.  Staging systems TNM FIGO (in gynaecological cancer) Dukes staging system Examples Breast breast cancer staging Chest non-small cell lung cancer staging small cell lung cancer staging malignant pleura...
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Carpal height

The carpal height is used to diagnose and assess the severity of carpal collapse. It is defined as the distance between the base of third metacarpal and the subchondral bony cortex of the distal radius. But due to variations between individuals, it is more appropriate to calculate the carpal hei...
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Catterall classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

The Catterall classification is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head: Stage I bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head changes are visible best in frog leg lateral view no...
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Cervical cancer staging

Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system. Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma 2009 8 stage 0: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL or CIN III)  stage I: confined to cervix stage Ia: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed by microscopy. Ia1: stromal inva...
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Cervical degenerative spondylosis - grading

A very old and reliable classification was given by Kellgren et al, for cervical degenerative changes based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph. In present context it can also be applied on MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebral disc...
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Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (also known as cervical dysplasia) is the potentailly premalignant stage in the dysplastic changes in the squamous epithelium of the cervix.  Grading of CIN is based on the degree of dysplasia seen in a sample of cervical tissue: CIN I similar to condy...
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Cervical lymph node staging

Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. TNM nodal staging Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
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Cholangiocarcinoma staging

Cholangiocarcinoma staging classifications vary depending on whether the tumour is primarily intrahepatic (ICC), hilar/perihilar (Klatskin), or extrahepatic. Tumour resection is currently the most optimal treatment and the ability of the tumour to infiltrate longitudinally and radially along th...
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Chondromalacia grading

Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
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Choriocarcinoma staging

The staging system for choriocarcinoma (usually refers to uterine choriocarcinoma) is the FIGO staging system and is as follows 1: stage I:  disease limited to the uterus stage II: disease out of the uterus but limited to the female genital tract stage III: metastasis in the lung with or with...
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Classification of antrochoanal polyps

CT is the modality of choice for assessment of antrochoanal polyps. A classification system has been proposed:  Stage I : strictly an antronasal polyp Stage II : if the polyp extends to the nasopharynx and the accessory ostium of the maxillary sinus is occluded fully by the neck of the ACP St...
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Colorectal cancer staging

There are two main colorectal carcinoma staging schemes. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Duke's (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: though muscularis propria sta...
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Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5ps) is an internationally recommended scale for clinical routine and clinical trials using FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment respons in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Inclusions FDG...
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Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis

Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis take place in a number of predictable steps.  Fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was well underway by the age of 15 years and is complete by 17-18 years.  Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly. Persistence of a ...
Article

Dukes staging system

The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice. Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...
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ECOG performance status

The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) is one of the largest clinical cancer research organizations in the United States, and conducts clinical trials in all types of adult cancers. The ECOG performance status is a scale used to assess how a patient's disease is progressing, assess how t...
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Endometrial carcinoma staging

Endometrial carcinoma staging allows appropriate treatment options to be considered and enables greater prognostic accuracy for endometrial carcinoma.   Staging Staging can be based on the TNM or FIGO system.  MR imaging is the modality of choice for staging with CT having relatively low spec...
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Enneking surgical staging system

The Enneking surgical staging system (also known as the MSTS system) is based on tumour grade, local spread and metastatic disease of malignant musculoskeletal tumours. It does not classify skull tumours or marrow-originating tumours (e.g. lymphoma, plasmacytoma / multiple myeloma, Ewing sarcom...
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Extramural vascular invasion

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by tumour. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.  Radiographic featur...
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FIGO staging system

The FIGO staging system are determined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique). In general, there are 5 stages: stage 0: carcinoma in situ (common in cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancer) stage I: confined to the...
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Flare phenomenon - bone scan

Flare phenomenon or osteoblastic flare phenomenon refers to interval visualisation of lesions with a sclerotic rim around an initially lytic lesion or sclerosis of lesions previously undetected on radiograph or CT in the setting of follow up of an oncological patient with other signs of partial ...
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Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Pathology Gastric metastases usually are haematogenous metastases, but stomach may be involved less frequently by the lymphatic spread or by direct extension of tumour from neighbouring structures or mesen...
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Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the histological grading of prostate cancer. A score of 1 to 5 is assigned to each of the two largest areas of tumour involvement in the samples obtained, based on the worst feature. 1: least aggressive 5: most aggressive These two scores are then added together t...
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Grading of diffuse axonal injury

Grading of diffuse axonal injury has been described histologically according to the anatomic distribution of injury, which correlated with outcome 1-3. The classification was first proposed by Adams in 1989 4 and divides diffuse axonal injury (DAI) into three grades: grade I: involves grey-whit...
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Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. PRETEXT grouping system of paediatric liver tumours not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all paediatric liver tumours Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) ...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging classifications supersede the typical TNM staging system seen in most other epithelial cancers. The TNM staging system was found to not be as prognostically useful for stratification of patients with hepatic cancers. Several substitute staging systems have...
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Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging

Staging of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is performed using the TNM staging system. TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) T1: limited to 1 subsite AND tumour size ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension T2: extends into adjacent subsite or area (larynx, oropharynx) and/or tumour size betw...
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Ichikado CT scoring of acute respiratory distress syndrome

This scoring system was established by Ichikado et al, in 20062 and at the time of writing (July 2016), this is the most widely used CT scoring system. CT scoring systems have been proposed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to predict clinical outcomes. Classification...
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Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system and actual staging is subsite (see laryngeal subsites) specific for T1-3. A rough approximation for all subsites is T1: limited to one subsite and normal cord mobility T2: more than one subsite and impaired cord mobility (bu...
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Lung cancer staging IASCL 7th edition

The International Association for the Study of Lung cancer (IASLC) 7th edition provide the most updated resource for lung cancer staging. This article provides a basic framework for TNM lung cancer staging. See also -  non small cell lung cancer staging T staging descriptor The parameter asse...
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Lymphoma staging

Staging There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response eval...
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Masaoka staging system of thymoma

The Masaoka staging system is commonly adopted for thymomas 1-3, and is the most important determinant of survival following surgical resection 4: stage I: intact thymic capsule stage II: capsular invasion into adjacent mediastinal fat or pleura stage III: macroscopic invasion into adjacent o...
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Milan criteria in liver tranplantation

The Milan criteria are a generally accepted set of criteria used to assess suitability in patients for liver transplantation with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In order to be suitable for a liver transplantation, one needs to have 1: single tumour with diameter ≤5 cm, or up to 3 tumo...
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Modified Noyes grading of the chondral injury

Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. The original Noyes grading system was based on arthroscopic findings. The modified Noyes system was published in 2009. Grade 0: normal cartilage Grade 1: increased T2 signal intensity of...
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Modified Ringertz grading system for diffuse astrocytomas

The modified Ringertz grading system has historically been one of the more frequently used grading systems for diffuse astrocytomas, but has not essentially been replaced by the WHO grading system. Unlike the WHO grading system and St Anne-Mayo grading system (also known as the Dumas-Duport gra...
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Moyamoya staging (Suzuki)

Suzuki and Takaku first described moyamoya and its staging in 1969. Stage I "narrowing of the carotid fork" * narrowed ICA bifurcation Stage II "initiation of the moyamoya" dilated ACA, MCA and narrowed ICA bifurcation with moyamoya change Stage III "intensifica...
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Mueller Weiss syndrome: radiographic staging

Mueller Weiss syndrome refers to a spontaneous adult onset osteonecrosis of the tarsal navicular. This syndrome is multifactorial and related to chronic loading on a suboptimally ossified navicular bone which is susceptible to central osteonecrosis due to its centripetal blood supply. It is dist...
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is staged using the TNM staging system with derived stage groupings.  TNM staging Primary tumour (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour is confined to the nasopharynx T2: tumour extends to soft...
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Necrotising enterocolitis staging

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, helping to guide appropriate treatment. In general stage I and II are managed medically, whereas stage III is managed surgically. stage I clinical signs lethargy, temperature instability, apnoea, bradycardia emesis, abdominal d...
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Neuroblastoma staging

There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS). Staging International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1: ...
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Non small cell lung cancer staging

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) staging can be accomplished both by the TNM system, or by the AJCC staging system. For a general discussion of these tumours please refer to the article on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). TNM system The current  7th edition January 2010 NSCLC staging is ...
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Oesophageal cancer staging

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
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Okuda staging system

The Okuda staging system was an advance on earlier hepatocellular (HCC) staging classifications, in that it incorporated both cancer-related variables and liver function related variables to determine prognosis 1: disease involving >50% of hepatic parenchyma ascites albumin ≤3 mg/dL bilir...
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Olfactory neuroblastoma (staging)

Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al in 1976 1. group a: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity group b: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses group c: tumour extends beyond the nasal cavit...
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Oral cavity

The oral cavity is the most proximal portion of the aerodigestive tract, and is continuous posteriorly with the oropharynx.   Gross anatomy The oral cavity includes the lips anteriorly and extends to a ring of structures (circumvallate papillae, anterior tonsillar pillars, soft palate) that di...
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Osteoarthritis hip - grading

Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to severity on imaging. Conventional radiograph grading grade 0: normal grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes grade 2: definite joint space narrowing, defined osteophytes and some sclerosis, especially in acetabular r...
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Osteochondritis dissecans surgical staging system

Osteochondritis dissecans can be classified at surgery into 4 stages: stage I stable lesion in continuity with the host bone covered by intact cartilage stage II stable on probing partial discontinuity of the lesion from the host bone stage III unstable on probing fragm...
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Ovarian cancer staging

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4. stage I:  tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube stage Ia:  ​tumour limited to o...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma staging

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...
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PRETEXT grouping system of paediatric liver tumours

The PRETEXT system propsed by the International Childhood Liver Tumours Strategy Group (previously called Société Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique - Epithelial Liver Tumour Study Group - SIOPEL) aims for staging and risk stratification of liver tumours at diagnoisis.  It's used ...
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Primary urethral cancer staging

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of s...
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Prostate cancer staging

Prostate cancer staging can be thought of in terms of physical location or grading histologically. The TNM classification is used to determine spread and the Gleason score is used to determine histological type. Another staging system is the Jewett-Whitmore staging system. Additionally there is...
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Rai staging system for chronic lymphoid leukaemia

The Rai staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It comprises of stages 0 to IV and classifies chronic lymphocytic leukemia into low, intermediate and high-risk categories, which correspond with stages 0, I & II...
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Rectal cancer staging

Staging strongly influences the success of, and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. In rectal cancer, pre-treatment MRI is the evaluation of choice, guiding surgical and non-surgical management options.  TNM staging See: TNM staging system for a general description. Pr...
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Renal cell carcinoma staging (Robson)

Robson staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is simple but has largely been replaced by the TNM system (see renal cell cancer staging article). Robson staging revolves around the relationship to Gerota's fascia, involvement of renal vein and regional nodes. stage I: limited to kidney stage II:...
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Renal cell carcinoma staging (TNM)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: ltumour confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 ...
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Rhabdomyosarcoma staging

Staging of rhabdomyosarcoma is based on the Lawrence/Gehan Staging System which comprises of a combination of pretreatment staging and postoperative clinical grouping. Stage stage I: orbit, eyelid, head and neck (excluding parameningeal), genitourinary (non-bladder, non-prostate), N0 or 1, M0 ...
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Silzbach sarcoidosis chest radiographic staging system

Silzbach system is a chest radiographic staging method for sarcoidosis. stage 0: normal chest radigraph: 10% at time of diagnosis stage I: lymph node enlargement: 50% at time of diagnosis stage II: lymph node enlargement and pulmonary opacities: 30% at time of diagnosis stage III: pulmonary ...
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Small cell lung cancer staging

Previously, small cell lung cancer was not staged in the same manner as non small cell lung cancer, on account of it almost never being resectable at the time of diagnosis, except in rare cases where it appears as a solitary pulmonary nodule. limited disease confined to one hemithorax inclusi...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arises most commonly at the distal end of the penile urethra with local invasion of the glans. In addition to TNM classification, the following staging is used: Staging Stage I: confined to the glans or foreskin Stage II: invasion of penile shaft Stage I...
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Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas

Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging, and relies on identification of local tumour extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.  The stagin...
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Staging of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

Staging of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome refers to x-ray abnormalities, and represents 4 phases of the disease: stage I: early asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on affected side) apparent increased density of the femoral head epiphysis widening of the medial joint space blurring of ...
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Staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma

A number of staging systems have been described for staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Below is the International Mesothelioma Interest Group TNM staging system. TNM T - Tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour T1a potentially resectable only ...
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Staging of primary fallopian tube carcinoma

The staging used  for primary fallopian tubal carcinoma is the FIGO system and is as follows: stage I: limited to fallopian tubes stage Ia: limited to lining of one fallopian tube (intraluminal) stage Ib: limited to inner linings of both tubes (intraluminal) stage Ic: invasion beyond the inn...
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Staging of retinoblastoma

A number of systems have been devised to stage retinoblastoma, with various end-points, and multiple systems are often used concurrently. The Reese Ellsworth classification is assessed with fundoscopy and aims at predicting the chance of preserving the eye with external beam radiotherapy 3. Mo...
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Staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

Staging of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma uses the TNM staging system. Primary tumour staging (T) Tx - tumour cannot be assessed T0 - no evidence of primary tumour Tis - carcinoma in situ T1 - tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2 - tumour greater than 2 cm and less than 4 cm i...
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Staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is staged using the TNM system (which has replaced the previously widely used Jewett-Scott-Marshall tumour staging system. It is very similar to staging of TCC of the renal pelvis and to staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM &...
Article

Staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is staged using the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta: non invasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (non invasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epith...
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Staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter is staged using the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the renal pelvis.  TNM staging T Ta: non invasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (non invasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epit...
Article

T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity

The T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity is as follows: Oral cavity The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferio...
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T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour

The T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour is as follows Definition The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region. T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour...
Article

T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx

The T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx is as follows: Definition: The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferiorsurface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posteriortonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior ...
Article

Testicular cancer staging

The staging for testicular tumours is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as:  stage I: confined to testis, epididymis, spermatic cord, scrotum stage II: lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumour marke...
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Thyroid cancer staging

Successful treatment of thyroid malignancies highly depends on accurate preoperative staging. Ultrasound and ultrasound guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies; CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterising thyroid nodu...
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TNM staging system

The TNM system has been widely adopted in many areas as a replacement for idiosyncratic disease specific systems. The number of Ts Ns and Ms depend on the tumour/site but in general: TNM T: Tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ...
Article

Toast classification in acute ischemic stroke

The TOAST (trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment) classification denotes five sub types of ischaemic stroke. large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus / thrombosis)* cardioembolism (high-risk / medium-risk)* small-vessel occlusion (lacune)* stroke of other determined aetiology * stroke ...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma staging

Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumour, and are staged using the TNM staging system.  staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter staging of transitional cel...
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Vaginal cancer staging

The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers for all histological sub types and is as follows FIGO staging system stage 0: carcinoma in situ stage I: tumour confined to vagina stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls stage III: extension to pelvic ...
Article

Varicocele grading on colour Doppler ultrasound

Varicocele grading can be done variably. The most elaborate and accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, which is briefed below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation first do a baseline grey scale study in supine position and measure the dia...
Article

Vulval cancer staging

The staging system for primary vulval cancer is the FIGO staging system and is as follows: stage 0: carcinoma in situ (pre-invasive); corresponds to Tis stage I: tumour <2cm (greatest dimension) and confined to vulva/perineum; corresponds to T1 stage Ia: stromal invasion by <1mm Stage ...
Article

Wilms tumour staging

Wilms' tumour staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumour. Where there is invasion or metastasises, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumour, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II loc...

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