Cancer staging using a number of systems to help direct treatment and aid prognosis.
FIGO (in gynaecological cancer)
Dukes staging system
breast cancer staging
non-small cell lung cancer staging
small cell lung cancer staging
The carpal height is used to diagnose and assess the severity of carpal collapse. It is defined as the distance between the base of third metacarpal and the subchondral bony cortex of the distal radius. But due to variations between individuals, it is more appropriate to calculate the carpal hei...
The Catterall classification is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head:
bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head
changes are visible best in frog leg lateral view
Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system.
Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma 2009 8
stage 0: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL or CIN III)
stage I: confined to cervix
stage Ia: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed by microscopy.
Ia1: stromal inva...
A very old and reliable classification was given by Kellgren et al, for cervical degenerative changes based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph. In present context it can also be applied on MRI evaluation of spine.
The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebral disc...
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (also known as cervical dysplasia) is the potentailly premalignant stage in the dysplastic changes in the squamous epithelium of the cervix.
Grading of CIN is based on the degree of dysplasia seen in a sample of cervical tissue:
similar to condy...
Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
TNM nodal staging
Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
Cholangiocarcinoma staging classifications vary depending on whether the tumour is primarily intrahepatic (ICC), hilar/perihilar (Klatskin), or extrahepatic.
Tumour resection is currently the most optimal treatment and the ability of the tumour to infiltrate longitudinally and radially along th...
Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
The staging system for choriocarcinoma (usually refers to uterine choriocarcinoma) is the FIGO staging system and is as follows 1:
stage I: disease limited to the uterus
stage II: disease out of the uterus but limited to the female genital tract
stage III: metastasis in the lung with or with...
CT is the modality of choice for assessment of antrochoanal polyps. A classification system has been proposed:
Stage I : strictly an antronasal polyp
Stage II : if the polyp extends to the nasopharynx and the accessory ostium of the maxillary sinus is occluded fully by the neck of the ACP
There are two main colorectal carcinoma staging schemes. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically.
Duke's (Astler-Coller modification)
stage A: confined to mucosa
stage B: though muscularis propria