Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis.
Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
The Okuda staging system was an advance on earlier hepatocellular (HCC) staging classifications, in that it incorporated both cancer-related variables and liver function related variables to determine prognosis 1:
disease involving >50% of hepatic parenchyma
albumin ≤3 mg/dL
Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al in 1976 1.
group a: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity
group b: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
group c: tumour extends beyond the nasal cavit...
The oral cavity is the most proximal portion of the aerodigestive tract, and is continuous posteriorly with the oropharynx.
The oral cavity includes the lips anteriorly and extends to a ring of structures (circumvallate papillae, anterior tonsillar pillars, soft palate) that di...
Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to severity on imaging.
Conventional radiograph grading
grade 0: normal
grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes
grade 2: definite joint space narrowing, defined osteophytes and some sclerosis, especially in acetabular r...
dissecans can be classified at surgery into 4 stages:
lesion in continuity with the
covered by intact cartilage
stable on probing
discontinuity of the lesion from the host bone
unstable on probing
The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1:
CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4.
stage I: tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube
tumour limited to o...