The accepted TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows 1:
Primary tumour (T)
TX: primary tumour cannot be assessed
T0: no evidence of primary tumour
Tis: carcinoma in situ
T1: tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
T2: tumour >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension
T3: tumour >5 ...
There are two main colorectal carcinoma staging schemes. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically.
Duke's (Astler-Coller modification)
stage A: confined to mucosa
stage B: though muscularis propria
The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice.
Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...
Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by tumour. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.
Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6.
Gastric metastases usually are haematogenous metastases, but stomach may be involved less frequently by the lymphatic spread or by direct extension of tumour from neighbouring structures or mesen...
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, helping to guide appropriate treatment. In general stage I and II are managed medically, whereas stage III is managed surgically.
lethargy, temperature instability, apnoea, bradycardia
emesis, abdominal d...
Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis.
Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system.
Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...
Staging strongly influences the success of, and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. In rectal cancer, pre-treatment MRI is the evaluation of choice, guiding surgical and non-surgical management options.
See: TNM staging system for a general description.