Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

9 results found
Article

Anal cancer staging

The accepted TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows 1: Primary tumour (T) TX: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension T3: tumour >5 ...
Article

Colorectal cancer staging

There are two main colorectal carcinoma staging schemes. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Duke's (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: though muscularis propria sta...
Article

Dukes staging system

The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice. Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...
Article

Extramural vascular invasion

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by tumour. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.  Radiographic featur...
Article

Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Pathology Gastric metastases usually are haematogenous metastases, but stomach may be involved less frequently by the lymphatic spread or by direct extension of tumour from neighbouring structures or mesen...
Article

Necrotising enterocolitis staging

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, helping to guide appropriate treatment. In general stage I and II are managed medically, whereas stage III is managed surgically. stage I clinical signs lethargy, temperature instability, apnoea, bradycardia emesis, abdominal d...
Article

Oesophageal cancer staging

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma staging

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...
Article

Rectal cancer staging

Staging strongly influences the success of, and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. In rectal cancer, pre-treatment MRI is the evaluation of choice, guiding surgical and non-surgical management options.  TNM staging See: TNM staging system for a general description. Pr...

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