Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
TNM nodal staging
Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
CT is the modality of choice for assessment of antrochoanal polyps. A classification system has been proposed:
Stage I : strictly an antronasal polyp
Stage II : if the polyp extends to the nasopharynx and the accessory ostium of the maxillary sinus is occluded fully by the neck of the ACP
Staging of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is performed using the TNM staging system.
Primary tumour staging (T)
limited to 1 subsite AND
tumour size ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension
extends into adjacent subsite or area (larynx, oropharynx) and/or
tumour size betw...
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system and actual staging is subsite (see laryngeal subsites) specific for T1-3. A rough approximation for all subsites is
T1: limited to one subsite and normal cord mobility
T2: more than one subsite and impaired cord mobility (bu...
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is staged using the TNM staging system with derived stage groupings.
Primary tumour (T)
Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed
T0: no evidence of primary tumour
Tis: carcinoma in situ
T1: tumour is confined to the nasopharynx
T2: tumour extends to soft...
Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al in 1976 1.
group a: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity
group b: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
group c: tumour extends beyond the nasal cavit...
The oral cavity is the most proximal portion of the aerodigestive tract, and is continuous posteriorly with the oropharynx.
The oral cavity includes the lips anteriorly and extends to a ring of structures (circumvallate papillae, anterior tonsillar pillars, soft palate) that di...
Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging, and relies on identification of local tumour extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
A number of systems have been devised to stage retinoblastoma, with various end-points, and multiple systems are often used concurrently.
The Reese Ellsworth classification is assessed with fundoscopy and aims at predicting the chance of preserving the eye with external beam radiotherapy 3.
Staging of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma uses the TNM staging system.
Primary tumour staging (T)
Tx - tumour cannot be assessed
T0 - no evidence of primary tumour
Tis - carcinoma in situ
T1 - tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
T2 - tumour greater than 2 cm and less than 4 cm i...
The T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity is as follows:
The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferio...
The T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour is as follows
The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region.
T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
The T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx is as follows:
Definition: The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferiorsurface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posteriortonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior ...
Successful treatment of thyroid malignancies highly depends on accurate preoperative staging.
Ultrasound and ultrasound guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies; CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterising thyroid nodu...