The carpal height is used to diagnose and assess the severity of carpal collapse. It is defined as the distance between the base of third metacarpal and the subchondral bony cortex of the distal radius. But due to variations between individuals, it is more appropriate to calculate the carpal hei...
The Catterall classification is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head:
bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head
changes are visible best in frog leg lateral view
A very old and reliable classification was given by Kellgren et al, for cervical degenerative changes based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph. In present context it can also be applied on MRI evaluation of spine.
The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebral disc...
Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
Fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was well underway by the age of 15 years and was complete by 17-18 years. Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly. Persistence of a scar at the site of fusion was demonstrated through to age 25 years.
The Enneking surgical staging system (also known as the MSTS system) is based on tumour grade, local spread and metastatic disease of malignant musculoskeletal tumours.
It does not classify skull tumours or marrow-originating tumours (e.g. lymphoma, plasmacytoma / multiple myeloma, Ewing sarcom...
Flare phenomenon or osteoblastic flare phenomenon refers to interval visualisation of lesions with a sclerotic rim around an initially lytic lesion or sclerosis of lesions previously undetected on radiograph or CT in the setting of follow up of an oncological patient with other signs of partial ...
Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. The original Noyes grading system was based on arthroscopic findings. The modified Noyes system was published in 2009.
Grade 0: normal cartilage
Grade 1: increased T2 signal intensity of...
Mueller Weiss syndrome refers to a spontaneous adult onset osteonecrosis of the tarsal navicular. This syndrome is multifactorial and related to chronic loading on a suboptimally ossified navicular bone which is susceptible to central osteonecrosis due to its centripetal blood supply. It is dist...
Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to severity on imaging.
Conventional radiograph grading
grade 0: normal
grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes
grade 2: definite joint space narrowing, defined osteophytes and some sclerosis, especially in acetabular r...
dissecans can be classified at surgery into 4 stages:
lesion in continuity with the
covered by intact cartilage
stable on probing
discontinuity of the lesion from the host bone
unstable on probing
Staging of rhabdomyosarcoma is based on the Lawrence/Gehan Staging System which comprises of a combination of pretreatment staging and postoperative clinical grouping.
stage I: orbit, eyelid, head and neck (excluding parameningeal), genitourinary (non-bladder, non-prostate), N0 or 1, M0
Staging of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome refers to x-ray abnormalities, and represents 4 phases of the disease:
stage I: early
asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on affected side)
apparent increased density of the femoral head epiphysis
widening of the medial joint space
blurring of ...