Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

28 results found
Article

Maffucci syndrome

Maffucci syndrome is a congenital nonhereditary mesodermal dysplasia characterised by multiple enchondromas with soft-tissue venous malformations (haemangiomas). On imaging, it is usually portrayed by a short limb with metaphyseal distortions due to multiple enchondromas, which may appear grote...
Article

Marchiafava-Bignami disease

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare CNS disorder usually seen in the context of alcoholism and malnutrition. The condition classically involves the corpus callosum with necrosis and demyelination.  Epidemiology MBD is in most instances seen in chronic alcoholics, and as such the epidem...
Article

Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease with autosomal dominant inheritance of defect in fibrillin 1 gene. The affected patients are tall with long disproportionate extremities and have pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, and may also experience upward and lateral optic lens dis...
Article

Marine Lenhart syndrome

Marine-Lenhart syndrome refers to a variant of Graves' disease where there are coexistent autonomous thyroid nodules. It is better described as Graves' disease with coexistent with multinodular goiter or nodular Graves' disease 1, as most authors consider it a distinct sub-entity of Graves’ .  ...
Article

May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery with or without to deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left CIV...
Article

Mazabraud syndrome

Mazabraud syndrome is a rare syndrome comprising of: fibrous dysplasia: usually polyostotic 2 multiple soft tissue myxomas (intramuscular myxomas): typically in large muscle groups Epidemiology It is most frequently seen in women (~70%) and usually present in middle age (mean age 46; range 1...
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McCune-Albright syndrome

McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a genetic disorder characterised by the association of: endocrinopathy: precocious puberty polyostotic fibrous dysplasia: more severe than in sporadic cases cutaneous pigmentation: coast of Maine 'cafe au lait' spots Clinical presentation Presentation is va...
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McKusick Kaufman syndrome

McKusick Kaufman syndrome (MKS) is an autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome primarily characterised by hydrometrocolpos - vaginal atresia post-axial polydactyly congenital heart disease
Article

Meconium plug syndrome

Meconium plug syndrome refers to a functional colonic obstruction in a newborn due to an obstructing meconium plug. It is usually transient and affects the left colon with meconium plugging the bowel distal to this segment. In this situation it is also termed the small left colon syndrome. Path...
Article

Medial medullary syndrome

Medial medullary syndrome, also known as Dejerine syndrome, represents less than 1% of brainstem stroke syndromes. Thrombotic or embolic occlusion of small perforating branches from vertebral or proximal basilar artery supplying the medial aspect of medulla oblongata cause this rare syndrome. It...
Article

Medial patellar plica syndrome

Medial patellar plica syndrome is one of the conditions that can be associated with the presence of synovial plicae of the knee (in this instance a medial plica). It can be a common source of anterior knee pain. Epidemiology While it can affect those of any age, it typically involves the young...
Article

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) (also known as the Berdon syndrome) is a rare congenital disorder characterised by a dilated non-obstructive urinary bladder and hypoperistalsis of the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology There is recognised strong female predi...
Article

Mendelson syndrome

Mendelson syndrome or peptic pneumonia refers to acute chemical pneumonitis caused by the aspiration of stomach contents in patients under general anesthesia. Pathology The etiologic agents is believed to be aspiration of acidic stomach contents, other compounds, e.g. bile, may also play a rol...
Article

Menkes disease

Menkes disease, also known as trichopoliodystrophy or Kinky hair kinky vessel syndrome, is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in a derangement in copper handling. It results in low copper levels and subsequently, deficiency in copper dependant mitochondrial enzymes.  Epidemiology Menk...
Article

MERRF

MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with red ragged fibres) is a rare, multisystem mitochondrial disorder.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present in late adolescence or early adulthood with 1,2,3 myoclonus epilepsy cerebellar ataxia intellectual disability vision and/or hearing loss cardi...
Article

Metronidazole central nervous system toxicity

Metronidazole, which is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial and protozoal infections can, in exceedingly rare cases, lead to central nervous system toxicity. Clinical presentation It presents as cerebellar dysfunction (75% of cases), altered mental state (33%) and/or seizures (13%) 1. Th...
Article

Midaortic syndrome

Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon entity affecting children and young adults. It is characterised by progressive narrowing of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Clinical presentation The onset of symptoms is usually during young adulthood or childhood 2: hypertension (most comm...
Article

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is an uncommon viral infection (<1000 cases) with the first case reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. It most commonly causes pneumonia and acute renal failure with a mortality rate of ~40%. MERS-CoV raises concern because of its ...
Article

Mikulicz syndrome

Mikulicz syndrome was considered a form of Sjögren syndrome (type 1) however more recently it is considered in IgG4 related disease spectrum.  It is a non-specific inflammatory enlargement of at least two or more of the salivary and lacrimal glands with xerostomia.  It may also be referred to b...
Article

Milk-alkali syndrome

Milk-alkali syndrome is the combination of: hypercalcaemia renal failure metabolic alkalosis It is due to the large amounts of calcium and alkali being ingested (e.g. milk and antacids for peptic ulcer disease treatment or calcium carbonate for osteoporosis). It is a cause of medullary nephr...
Article

Milwaukee shoulder

Milwaukee shoulder refers to a destructive shoulder arthropathy due to deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and identification of these crystals in synovial fluid is the cornerstone of diagnosis. Epidemiology Milwaukee shoulder frequently affects older women, often with a history of trauma t...
Article

Möbius syndrome

Möbius syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence or underdevelopment of the abducens nerve (CN VI) and facial nerve (CN VII) nuclei. Epidemiology It is estimated that there is ~1 case per 100,000 births 4. Clinical presentation The earliest sign is the inability of...
Article

Morquio syndrome

Morquio syndrome is an autosomal recessive mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), type IV. Epidemiology Incidence estimated at ~1:40,000. Clinical presentation Many cases present at ~2 years of age and have normal intelligence. Clinical features: severe dwarfism (<4 foot) joint laxity corneal op...
Article

Mucopolysaccharidoses

The mucopolysaccharidoses constitute a group of hereditary disorders having in common an excessive accumulation of mucopolysaccharides secondary to deficiencies in specific enzymes. Several distinctive types of mucopolysaccharidoses have been described, each with distinctive clinical and radiol...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are a collection of syndromes characterised by the presence of, as the name would suggest, multiple endocrine tumours. They are autosomal dominant in inheritance. MEN I (Wermer syndrome) MEN II (multiple endocrine adenomatosis) MEN IIa (Sipple synd...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I is also known as Wermer syndrome. Clinical presenation Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the commonest presentations. Pathology Abnormality is related to a tumour suppressor gene located in chromosome 11q13. MEN type I is an autosomal dominant sy...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIa, also known as Sipple syndrome, accounts for most cases of MEN II and is characterised by: pheochromocytomas: in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients, aggressive, and may secrete calcit...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb (also known as mucosal neuroma syndrome 3) accounts for only 5% cases of MEN II and is characterised by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients; aggressive, and ma...

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