Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,161 results found
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Humeral head bare area

The humeral head bare area is the posterosuperior surface of the humeral head that is not covered by cartilage, limited anteriorly by the cartilage and posteriorly by the insertion of the infraspinatus tendon. It lies between the articular cartilage of the humeral head and the synovial reflectio...
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Patella tilt angle

The patella tilt angle is a measurement of patellar tilt. It can be evaluated on axial images by the angle between the posterior condylar line and the maximal patella width line. It can be used in the assessment of patellofemoral instability. See also patellofemoral angle
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Chronic elbow instability

Chronic elbow instability patients present with pain, apprehension or subluxation of joint of movement. There are various types of elbow instability with most common one type being posterolateral instability 1. Instability can occur from chronic overuse or post trauma. Both bony articulation and...
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Attenuation imaging (ultrasound)

Attenuation imaging is an emerging method (c.2022) used for detection hepatic steatosis. It provides the function of quantifying and reducing the color code of liver decay factors, which may be due to changes in hepatic composition (such as increased fat content 1-3. The ATI value is defined as...
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Intertransversarii muscles

The intertransversarii muscles are small and short muscles found in the deepest layer of the intrinsic back muscles that stretch between the transverse processes of the adjacent vertebrae. Most intertransversarii pairs are located within the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine with some sma...
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Normal hilar position (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the normal position of the lung hila and pulmonary arteries is: RALPH Mnemonic Right Anterior, Left Posterior and Higher The left hilum is commonly higher than the right. The left pulmonary artery arches posterosuperiorly over the left mainstem bronchus, whereas the ri...
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Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon form of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and is typically caused by an episode of aspiration of a large quantity of a petroleum-based products. Radiographic features Chest radiograph Non-specific but may show areas of consolidation and with a lower lo...
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Non-ischemic cerebral enhancing (NICE) lesions

Non-ischemic cerebral enhancing (NICE) lesions are an uncommon delayed complication of cerebrovascular procedures, including aneurysm coiling, thrombectomy and placement flow-diverting stent placement 1,2,4. Epidemiology As NICE lesions are seen following endovascular procedures most commonly ...
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Femoro-epiphyseal acetabular roof (FEAR) index

The femoro-epiphyseal acetabular roof (FEAR) index is a radiographic measurement to help identify clinical hip microinstability in acetabular dysplasia. Usage The FEAR index should be used in conjunction with clinical and other radiographic features for the identification of clinically unstabl...
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Distal radioulnar joint osteoarthritis

Distal radioulnar joint osteoarthritis is a condition in which arthritis in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) causes pain and limited function in wrist joint. DRUJ plays a vital role in forearm rotation and axial weight bearing. Soft tissues around this joint play an important role in providing sta...
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Interspinales muscles

The interspinales muscles are a group of paired muscle fascicles found in the paraspinal portion of the deepest layer of the intrinsic back muscles. Gross anatomy The interspinales muscles extend between the spinous processes of two neighboring vertebrae. They are present throughout the entir...
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Nasal dermoid cyst

Nasal dermoids (or nasal dermoid sinus cysts) are the most common congenital midline nasal lesion typically presenting in early childhood. Epidemiology Nasal dermoids are rare and account for only 4-12% of all dermoid cysts of the head and neck, far less common than angular dermoids 1,2. They ...
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Furstenberg sign

Furstenberg sign is a clinical feature of masses of the head that communicate with the intracranial compartment. Due to this connection, an increase in intracranial pressure will result in bulging or swelling of the mass. This can occur spontaneously during crying or can be elicited with a Valsa...
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Denervation pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles

Denervation pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles is a rare cause of unilateral limb swelling. It is important to exclude and consider other causes for this presentation. Clinical presentation This condition usually presents as painless unilateral calf swelling. Pathology More commonly, denerva...
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Persistent limbic arch

A persistent limbic arch (or ring) is a cerebral vascular anatomical variant whereby a complete vascular ring encircles the limbic system and corpus callosum. In the embryo, this connection is between the anterior choroidal artery and the anterior cerebral artery (via pericallosal artery) 2. T...
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Pseudohypoxic brain swelling

Pseudohypoxic brain swelling, also known as postoperative intracranial hypotension-associated venous congestion, is a rare condition with restricted diffusion on MRI in the basal ganglia and thalami following surgery. This can mimic cerebral hypoxic changes in the absence of vascular pathology. ...
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Soleal sling syndrome

Soleal sling syndrome is a rare tibial nerve entrapment syndrome. More commonly the tibial nerve gets entrapped in the tarsal tunnel. In soleal sling syndrome, the nerve gets compressed under the tendinous arch at the origin of soleus muscle 1. Clinical presentation Can present with numbness i...
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Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma

Inflammatory leiomyosarcomas are malignant tumors with smooth muscle differentiation and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate that were just recently recognized as a distinct entity by the WHO in 2020 1-3. Epidemiology Inflammatory leiomyosarcomas are very rare lesions with most cases seen in a...
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Middle clunal nerve entrapment

Middle clunal nerve entrapment is a potential cause of low back pain. The middle clunal nerves travel beneath the long posterior sacroiliac ligament and this is a potential space for nerve entrapment 1. Clinical presentation Low back pain and leg pain can be caused by entrapment of these nerve...
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Rectus capitis anterior muscle

The rectus capitis anterior muscle is a short muscle that belongs to the prevertebral and anterior neck muscles. It is located anterior to the vertebral column and stretches between the atlas and the base of the skull. Summary origin: lateral mass and transverse process of atlas (C1) insertio...
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Acanthosis nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous disorder characterized by symmetric hyperpigmented velvety plaques on the neck, axillae, antecubital and popliteal fossae, inframammary, and groin areas. It is associated with acquired lipodystrophy. Pathology The benign form of acanthosis nigricans is assoc...
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Middle clunal nerve

The middle clunal nerve is a sensory nerve that originates from S1-S4 1. It travels underneath the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL) and passes between the posterior superior iliac spine and posterior inferior iliac spine to course over the iliac crest 1. It supplies sensation to the lum...
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Os interphalangeus

Os interphalangeus is an ossicle present in the plantar aspect of interphalangeal joint of great toe 1. The ossicle can be present either centrally or eccentrically within the joint capsule and is separated from the flexor hallucis longus tendon by a bursa. Radiographic features Plain radiogra...
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Depressor supercilii muscle

The depressor supercilii is a facial muscle located in the eye region between both eyebrows and orbits. Terminology The nature of this muscle is in some dispute as some anatomical specialists consider it to be part of the orbicularis oculi muscle, while others maintain that it is a distinct mu...
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Extensor indicis proprius

The extensor indicis propius (EIP) muscle is one of the muscles of the posterior deep compartment of the forearm. It is involved in the extension of the second digit at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints 1. Summary origin: posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane in...
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Distal humerus physeal separation

Distal humerus physeal separation is seen in children under 3 years and is often associated with non-accidental injury 1. Clinical presentation The child will usually present with a reduced range of motion with swelling and ecchymosis around the joint 2. Pathology The injury can occur durin...
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Anastomosing hemangioma

Anastomosing hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms consisting of thin-walled anastomosing vessels. These lesions have been just recently added to the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020 as a separate entity 1-3 Epidemiology Anastomosing hemangiomas are rare lesions with a wide...
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Radiology training in Italy

Radiology training in Italy is a four-year residency programme (Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica) held by about thirty universities accreditated by the Health Ministry and Education Ministry 1. The requisite to apply for a residency program is completing a six-year medical school ...
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Sinus tarsi "see-through" sign

Sinus tarsi "see-through" sign is a radiological sign noted in pes cavus and/or hindfoot varus with the alignment of the sinus tarsi parallel to the x-ray beam resulting in the ability to "see-through" the sinus tarsi on lateral foot x-rays 1,2.
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Cri du chat syndrome

Cri du chat syndrome is a rare congenital disorder caused by the deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. A high-pitched monotonous cry is the significant characteristic finding 1. Epidemiology Cri du chat syndrome is rare with an incidence of 1 in 15,000-50,000 births ref. Clinical present...
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Giant cell fibroblastoma

Giant cell fibroblastomas are locally aggressive mesenchymal neoplasms closely related to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Epidemiology Giant cell fibroblastomas are rare. They are usually but not exclusively found in children within the first decade of life, adult cases are rare. Boys are mor...
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Posterior talofibular ligament injury

Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injuries are far less common than other lateral collateral ligament injuries of the ankle and almost always occur with other injuries 1. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~10% (range 4-20%) on MRI in patients with ankle injuries 1,4,6. Pathology On...
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Sharp mediastinum sign

The sharp mediastinum sign is a unique sign in neonatal chest x-rays for medial pneumothoraces or pneumomediastinum, especially as a complication to mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Radiographic features Plain radiograph As neonatal chest x-rays are taken with t...
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Pediatric foot (lateral view)

The lateral foot view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones of the foot.  Indications This projection demonstrates the foot joint orthogonal to the natural anatomical position. It is useful in diagnosing fractures, soft tissue effu...
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Symmetrical cerebral restricted diffusion

Symmetrical cerebral restricted diffusion is seen in a broad range of pathologies. The differential depends on the location of the lesions. Symmetrical central tegmental tract lesions central tegmental tract T2 hyperintensity  symmetrical hyperintensities of the extrapyramidal tract connectin...
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Mandible (axiolateral oblique view)

The axiolateral oblique mandible view allows for visualization of the mandibular body, mandibular ramus, condylar process and mentum. Indications This projection is useful in identifying structural changes and displaced fractures of the mandible in a trauma setting, and in neoplastic or inflam...
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Tubulointerstitial nephritis

Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a condition where the inflammation is mainly in or around the renal tubules. It may be acute or chronic. Epidemiology Tubulointerstitial nephritis may affect any age group ranging from pediatric to adult. Pathology Etiology Tubulointerstitial nephritis can ar...
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EWSR1-SMAD3-positive fibroblastic tumor

EWSR1-SMAD3-positive fibroblastic tumors are benign mesenchymal neoplasms with different morphologies and a provisional name that have been just recently characterized (c.2018) 1-4 and added to the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020 2,3. Epidemiology EWSR1-SMAD3-positive fibrobla...
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Radial clubhand (radial deficiency)

Radial clubhand is a rare congenital birth disorder characterized by an absent thumb and a perpendicular relationship between wrist and forearm. Epidemiology Rare. Noted in around 1: 55,000 births. Bilateral up to 72% of cases. Clinical presentation Patients present with a perpendicular rela...
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CT Orbits (protocol)

Computed tomography of the orbits (CT Orbits) involves the visualization of bony and soft tissue structures of the orbits. This examination is most commonly performed as a non-contrast scan or reconstructed from other examinations such as a CT head/face. Contrast-enhanced scans are utilized depe...
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Air-tissue interface sign - breast

Air-tissue interface sign on mammography in cases where the mass is located on the skin helps to distinguish it from intra-mammary mass so that in the skin-based lesion, due to the presence of air in the vicinity of a part of the margin, its border is pretty sharp and a narrow lucent rim around ...
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Ovarian S/A ratio

The ovarian stromal area to total ovarian area (S/A) ratio is an imaging parameter usually measured on transvaginal ultrasound on a single plane. It is often taken as one of the criteria for polycystic ovarian morphology. A strict cut off value can not been accepted although several publications...
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FIGO classification system for uterine leiomyoma

The FIGO classification system for uterine leiomyoma (fibroids) classifies uterine leiomyomas based on location. Usage This classification system was developed for clinical and research purposes 2, however, in clinical use, there is significant variation in agreement 3. Classification Submuc...
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CT neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis (NCAP protocol)

The CT neck chest-abdomen-pelvis protocol aims to evaluate the neck, thoracic and abdominal structures using contrast in trauma imaging. The use of contrast facilitates the assessment of pathologies globally whilst minimizing dose by potentially disregarding a non-contrast scan.  Note: This art...
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Reversible bronchiectasis

Reversible bronchiectasis is a term describing dilated bronchial tree in a patient with a collapsed (atelectatic) lobe. It is thought to be due to increased tension on the bronchial wall by the collapsed lung. The dilated bronchi usually return to their normal size when the lung expands. The phr...
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Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor

Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumors (SCPFT) or PRDM10-rearranged soft tissue tumors are rare low-grade mesenchymal neoplasms of the dermis and subcutis 1-3 that have been just recently added to the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020 2,3. Epidemiology Superficial CD34-po...
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Footling presentation

A footling presentation (sometimes termed an incomplete breech presentation) is a variation in fetal presentation and is considered a form of breech presentation. It is uncommon and thought to account for around 10-30% of births. In this presentation the fetus has a longitudinal lie but has one ...
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Foramen cecum (tongue)

The foramen cecum of the tongue is the remnant of thyroglossal duct located between the anterior two-thirds and posterior third of the tongue.  Gross anatomy The foramen cecum is located in the midline on the surface of the tongue, at the apex of the terminal sulcus, the groove that marks the ...
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Sporotrichosis

Sporotrichosis is a rare chronic fungal infection. Pathology Sporotrichosis is caused by a dimorphic fungus Sporothrix sp.: Sporothrix schenkii: considered the most common and can affect the respiratory system Sporothrix brasiliensis Sporothrix globosa Sporothrix pallida Sporothrix mexica...
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Long head of biceps tendon sheath effusion

A long head of biceps tendon sheath effusion is considered a non-specific finding as it communicates with the glenohumeral joint (can sometimes be normal) although can also be associated with number of pathologies which include adhesive capsulitis: approximately 70% of patients with adhesive c...
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Flashlight sign (B-flow)

The flashlight sign is a recently described B-flow vascular ultrasound sign caused by wall adherent and floating thrombi and emboli in arteries, which appear as bright spots on imaging. Radiographic features The flashlight sign is described as a moving, very bright intraluminal focus of signa...
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Tympanosclerosis

Tympanosclerosis is a descripitve terms which refers to deposition of hyalinised collagen +/- calcium in the tympanic cavity. If it occurs in solely tympanic membrane, it is termed myringosclerosis 1. It can often be associated with chronic otomastoiditis is which instance it is termed chronic...
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Non-fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Non-fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a phenotypical form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and one of the main two subtypes under the newer classification systems. Radiographic features CT Described features include 1 mosaic attenuation pattern: typically reflects coexistent lobules af...
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Metopic ridge

A metopic ridge refers to a variation in skull shape, characterized by a midline forehead ridge, which may occur either due to the physiological closure of the metopic suture or as a result of craniosynostosis of this suture 1-3. It is essential to differentiate between the two conditions becaus...
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Handstand fracture

A handstand fracture is a specific metacarpal fracture category that affects the head of the metacarpal bone. Clinical presentation As the name implies, patients with such a fracture commonly present after losing balance from a handstand and sustaining a high-energy impact to the hand. Patien...
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Adductor hiatus

The adductor hiatus is an opening between the adductor magnus muscle and the femur. It is also known as the hiatus magnus. Gross Anatomy adductor hiatus represents the distal end of the adductor canal it is the anatomical landmark where the femoral artery and vein transition to become the pop...
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Case of the month

Each month the Radiopaedia Featured Case Committee chooses a case from recently featured cases as Case of the Month and this case is featured in our newsletter and added to this list. Case of the month 2022 September: Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) by Rodrigo Dias Duarte Octobe...
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Retiform hemangioendothelioma

Retiform hemangioendotheliomas or hobnail hemangioendotheliomas are intermediate locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing vascular neoplasms with a distinctive hobnail endothelial cell morphology. Epidemiology Retiform hemangioendotheliomas are rare with <100 cases reported in the literatur...
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Thyroid atrophy

Thyroid atrophy can arise in a number of situations and most with certain chronic thyroiditides such as: Hashimoto thyroiditis atrophic thyroiditis 1 It can also occur with conditions such as: irradiation prior treatment (e.g. I-131) of hyperactive conditions such as Graves disease 3 prima...
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Ciliary body (eye)

The ciliary body is the continuation of the uveal layer of the eye and functions in the production of aqueous humor and the process of lens accommodation.  Summary location: between the vitreous body and posterior chamber of the globe function: aqueous humor production and accommodation...
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Kfuri and Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

The Kfuri and Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures is a revision of the classic Schatzker classification 1. It complements the original radiographic classification with the inclusion of CT, allowing for a tridimensional interpretation of the fracture 2,3. The revisited classific...
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Inflammatory fibroid polyp

Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFP) are rare, benign lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly affecting the gastric antrum, followed by small bowel 1. Epidemiology The tumor is most commonly found in in patients aged 60-70 years old 2. In 66-75% of the cases, it occurs in the gastri...
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Calcified cerebral metastases

Calcified cerebral metastases are uncommon and can either occur spontaneously in the setting of certain specific primary malignancies or secondarily, following treatment with radiotherapy 1. A wide range to primary malignancies can result in calcified cerebral metastases 1: adenocarcinoma ...
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Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas

Adenosquamous carcinomas of the pancreas are rare, highly aggressive neoplasms, clinically indistinguishable from the more common pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Their defining pathological and imaging characteristics are the frequent presence of central necrosis and vascular invasion. Termin...
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Posterior meningeal artery

The posterior meningeal artery is the largest artery supplying the dura of the posterior cranial fossa. It may arise from the ascending pharyngeal artery, or less commonly, the occipital artery. The artery may enter the cranial vault through the jugular foramen, foramen magnum or the hypoglossal...
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Familial hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common autosomal dominant 1 condition resulting in hyperlipidemia.  Epidemiology 1 in 200 individuals are estimated to be carriers of at least one gene associated with familial hypercholesterolemia 1. Pathology Features of hyperlipidemia such as early/exces...
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Annotations

Annotations are a feature of cases and allow important features on images to be annotated and linked to the text in the findings. Creating annotations The ability to create an annotation is available when in "Edit text and annotations" mode for a case. To create a new annotation, go to the im...
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Thoracic splanchnic nerves

The thoracic splanchnic nerves are three paired autonomic nerves that provide sympathetic innervation of the abdominopelvic viscera and vessels. They contain efferent and afferent fibers. Gross anatomy Three pairs of thoracic splanchnic nerves arise from the T5 to T12 sympathetic ganglia. Gre...
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Somatic nervous system

The somatic nervous system (SNS) is a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system which provides innervation to the somatic structures of the body, that is the parts excluding the viscera, smooth muscle, and glands. The SNS is distributed throughout the body through somatosensory neurons withi...
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Phrenic plexus

The phrenic plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia in the upper abdomen. It is a lateral epiarterial extension of the celiac plexus. Summary location: the bilateral ganglia and plexuses lie along the inferior phrenic arteries origin: preganglionic sympathetic fiber...
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Renal plexus

The renal plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia located in the upper abdomen and is a lateral perivascular extension of the aorticorenal plexus. Summary location: bilateral plexuses and ganglia lie on the renal arteries lateral to the aorticorenal plexuses origin:...
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Aorticorenal plexus

The aorticorenal plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia located in the upper abdomen and is an inferior perivascular extension of the larger celiac plexus. Some descriptions separate the aortic and aorticorenal plexuses but they are considerably interconnected and con...
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Myocardial necrosis

Myocardial necrosis refers to the cell death of cardiomyocytes and represents one pathologic correlate in the setting of myocardial injury and/or myocardial infarction. Clinical presentation Many clinical scenarios leading to myocardial necrosis will lead to some form of cardiac symptoms such ...
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Segment involvement score

The segment involvement score (SIS) represents an estimate of the extent of the overall coronary plaque burden 1-3. Calculation The segment involvement score is determined on coronary CTA by designation of a score of 1 for each one of the coronary artery segments with a detectable atherosclero...
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Hepatic plexus

The hepatic plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia  located in the upper abdomen. Most descriptions are of a periarterial extension of the celiac plexus along the common hepatic artery and portal vein. Summary location: the plexus and ganglia extends to the right fr...
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Inferior cervical ganglion

The inferior cervical ganglion (plural: ganglia) is the second largest ganglion of the cervical sympathetic trunk and provides autonomic innervation to the head and neck region. Gross anatomy The inferior cervical ganglion is formed by embryologically fused C7 and C8 sympathetic ganglia. It ha...
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Middle cervical ganglion

The middle cervical ganglion (plural: ganglia) is the smallest ganglion of the cervical sympathetic trunk and providing autonomic innervation to the head and neck region. Gross anatomy The middle cervical ganglion is formed by embryologically fused C5 and C6 sympathetic ganglia. It has superio...
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Dilation vs dilatation

Dilation and dilatation are commonly used in radiology, and medicine more generally. Both terms refer to the expansion of a 'hollow' anatomical or pathological structure, including vessels, cardiac chambers, cerebral ventricles, urinary tract, cysts, and also prostheses, e.g. stents and angiopla...
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Celiac plexus

The celiac plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia in the upper abdomen. It is the largest major autonomic plexus. Summary location: the ganglion and plexus lie close to the celiac trunk origin: preganglionic sympathetic fibers via the greater and les...
Article

Ganglion impar

The ganglion impar, also know as the ganglion of Walther, is the midline autonomic ganglion located in the lower pelvis. It is the most distal convergence of the pelvic sympathetic chain which is usually located anterior to the coccyx.  It can be found anywhere between the sacrococcygeal joint a...
Article

Squeeze sign

The squeeze sign is a pathognomonic feature of a colonic lipoma, where the lesion is seen to change in size and shape upon compression. This can be demonstrated with a barium enema examination where a well-circumscribed, spherical filling defect will be seen to elongate during peristalsis 1,2. T...
Article

Pulmonary plexus

The pulmonary plexus is a network of autonomic nerves and ganglia situated at the pulmonary hila of each lung which regulates bronchial smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion from submucosal glandular mucous secretion, vascular permeability and blood flow. It is derived from both the sympathetic an...
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Superior mesenteric plexus

The superior mesenteric plexus is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia located in the retroperitoneum. Summary location: the plexus and ganglia lie in the retroperitoneum at the origin of the superior mesenteric artery within the small bowel mesentery origin: formed from branches from ...
Article

Inferior mesenteric plexus

The inferior mesenteric plexus is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia located in the retroperitoneum. Summary location: the plexus and ganglia lie in the retroperitoneum at the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery origin: formed mainly from branches from the aorticorenal plexus some c...
Article

Gonads

The gonads (single: gonad) are the paired reproductive organs of humans responsible for the production of gametes and sex hormones. The anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, hence they are covered separately: ovaries in the female located in the pelvis testes...
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Autonomic ganglia and plexuses

The autonomic ganglia and plexuses are a collection of ganglia where autonomic preganglionic neurons arising from the CNS synapse with postganglionic neurons outside the CNS, i.e. in the peripheral nervous system. Many of the ganglia contain nerves of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous ...
Article

Parasympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system (PaNS/PNS), mediated by the head and neck ganglia and pelvic splanchnic nerves, is a major division of the autonomic nervous system. It is composed of general visceral afferent and efferent axons that allow for involuntary control of bodily functions via severa...
Article

Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score

The Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score (BRICS) is a severity assessment score for bronchiectasis, developed from a cohort of patients with idiopathic and postinfectious bronchiectasis, and was developed by combining the parameters of bronchial dilatation and number of bronchopulmonar...
Article

Residual tumor classification

Residual tumor classification, also known as R classification, defines how complete the resection of a malignancy has been at surgery. It has an important prognostic implication. Classification R0: no residual tumor R1: microscopic residual tumor R2: macroscopic residual tumor An R0 resecti...
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Benign vs malignant pulmonary nodule

Differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules is of great importance as it determines the further course of management of the patient. Benign pulmonary nodule size: the smaller the size the more likely to be benign ~80% of benign nodules are <2 cm in size. margin: smooth, regular; ...
Article

Protracted bacterial bronchitis

Protracted bacterial bronchitis is one of the most common causes of cough in children, particularly those aged <6 years. Is it characterized by a chronic wet cough with no associated cause and tends to respond to 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Epidemiology Protracted bacterial bronchitis is th...
Article

Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a large hemostatic glycoprotein which serves several roles in platelet aggregation and the clotting cascade. Physiology vWF is synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. A series of complex post-translational modifications result in the creatio...
Article

Normal imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging divided by body region and system. brain head and neck spine chest breast gastrointestinal genitourinary hepatobiliary upper limb lower limb pediatrics

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