Absent bow tie sign (knee)
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At the time the article was created Frank Gaillard had no recorded disclosures.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Frank Gaillard had the following disclosures:
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- Biogen Australia Pty Ltd, Investigator-Initiated Research Grant for CAD software in multiple sclerosis: finished Oct 2021 (past)
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The absent bow tie sign represents the loss of the normal appearance of the menisci on parasagittal MRI images and is suggestive of meniscal injury.
Normally the medial and lateral menisci appear as low signal triangular structures linked by a thin body located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateau. The appearance of the menisci has been likened to a bow tie.
As the normal meniscus laterally measures 9-12 mm in width, it should be seen on a number of adjacent images (2-3 images if imaged with 3 mm thick slices with a 1 mm skip).
An absent bow tie sign is therefore when less than two sagittal slices demonstrate a normal body of the meniscus and is suggestive of meniscal pathology, including:
- bucket handle tear with displacement (often with a double PCL sign)
- flap tear with displacement (i.e. bucket handle, but the handle at one end has come loose)
- free fragment with displacement (i.e. bucket handle, but the handle at both ends has come loose)
Other meniscal changes can, however, appear similar, including:
- prior resection of a meniscal tear
- degenerative maceration of the inner edge of the meniscus
- small patients (children / small adults)
In contrast, if there are more 2 or 3 sagittal images with a visible bow-tie this implies a discoid meniscus; obviously, this depends on the slice thickness and skip width.
- 1. The Absent Bow Tie Sign1. (2000) Radiology. 215 (1): 263-5. doi:10.1148/radiology.215.1.r00ap25263 - Pubmed
- 2. C A Helms, A Laorr, W D Cannon, Jr. The absent bow tie sign in bucket-handle tears of the menisci in the knee. (2013) AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 170 (1): 57-61. doi:10.2214/ajr.170.1.9423600 - Pubmed