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Adhesive atelectasis refers to the specific form of lung atelectasis that occurs due to the decrease or absence of pulmonary surfactant produced by type II pneumocytes. Without sufficient surfactant the alveoli collapse due to increased surface tension. It is most commonly seen in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome.
Diffuse surfactant deficiency
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn (surfactant deficiency disorder)
prolonged shallow breaths
post operative i.e. cardiac bypass surgery